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Ye Olde Compendiumme of Sacrifices

Discussion in 'Judaism DIR' started by Tumah, Oct 8, 2017.

  1. Tumah

    Tumah Veteran Member

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    I've come to the conclusion that the best use of my time is to present the plethora of sacrifices found in Judaism (decision making may not be my forte). I'm making a post describing every type of sacrifice found in Judaism and it's purpose. I'll break them up by categories and try to provide as much information as I can without making this OP even more cumbersome. So I've not included a significant amount of information, such as the procedure for sacrifice, the various ways a sacrifice can become invalid and many other complex rules.

    (Please note: Naming is an art that we have sadly either never had or is long lost.)

    Sacrifices are split into two major types: the individual's sacrifice and the public's sacrifice.

    The individual's sacrifice was paid for by the individual. If I recall correctly, Jerusalem had a lower market and upper market. The upper market had all the animal stalls, money changers and other assorted Temple-centric merchants. As it was prohibited to take your money belt up the Temple Mount, you'd purchase your animal or change your money for the Half Shekel there and then ascend the Temple Mount.

    The public sacrifice was paid for by everyone, from the Half Shekel everyone had to bring once a year. There were a number of public sacrifices as well as the incense (burnt twice daily 365 days a year plus an extra three portions for the Day of Atonement) that fall under this category.

    There are eight major categories:

    The Burnt Offering, the Sin Offering, the Fault Offering, the Peace Offering, the Tithe Offering, the First-born Offering, the Passover Offering and the Meal Offering. They're categories are based on different rules that apply to them.

    In addition to the animal itself, every Burnt Offering, Peace Offering as well as the Sin Offering and Fault Offering of a Leper is brought with a Meal Offering and a Wine Libation. Each individual animal was brought with its own Offerings and Libations. The Meal Offering was burnt on the altar completely. The wine was poured into one of two holes (one was for wine the other for the Water Libation brought once a year on Tabernacles) that lead to a space under the altar ~ 1.5' x 1.5'. See Below for Meal Offerings.

    Almost all sacrifices have at least certain parts that are burnt on the Altar of Burnt Offerings. Those are: the fat encasing the innards of the animal (I believe it's called caul fat) kidneys and the fat on them and the flanks near them, a piece of the liver that juts out as well as a small piece of the main body of the liver.

    Another commonality between the sacrifices is that if they were not completely eaten within the allotted time or became ritually impure or invalid, they were required to be burned at a designated place outside the Temple.

    Burnt Offering

    Burnt Offerings are called as such, because they are burnt entirely on the altar with the exception of the skin (of animals) which was given to the priests. They were slaughtered in the northern area of the Inner Courtyard and it's blood was collected there as well. It's blood was sprinkled on the altar twice, once at two different corners (NE and SW), such that the blood went on all four sides.

    There are three major types of Burnt Offerings:

    Voluntary Offerings

    Donation Burnt Offering (Lev. 1) - the Donation Offering is a voluntary offering. If a person makes a vow to bring a Burnt Offering for whatever reason, this is what he brings. It has a slight atonement aspect as it can be used to atone for a handful of sins that do not have a punishment or sacrifice associated with them.

    Provision for the Altar (Lev. 1:2) - Money left over from the Half Shekel tax that was not needed for regular year-round sacrifices, was used to buy additional sacrifices that were burned when there were no sacrifices that were currently burning on the altar. This sacrifice is considered a public voluntary offering.​

    Obligatory Personal Sacrifices

    Sight Offering (Deut. 16:16) - Every one of the Three Pilgramages (Passover, Weeks, Tabernacles), its required that one bring this sacrifice on the first day (or the following days if the first day is missed). This sacrifice can be brought from bull, ram or sheep.

    Puerperal Offering (Lev. 12:6-8) - Forty days after giving birth to a male and eighty days after giving birth to a female, a puerperal mother has to bring this sacrifice as well as a Sin Offering. This sacrifice is either a lamb within it's first year or if she's poor, a dove or pigeon.

    (Note: Yes, puerperal is a word. I was surprised too.)

    Rising and Falling Offering (Lev. 5:1-12) - Brought for (1) a swear accidentally made in vain or unfulfilled oath, or (2) purposely falsely swearing in court that one has not testimony to present in favor of a party or (3) accidentally entering the Temple or eating a sacrifice while impure. Called so because of the three options one has with regards to the form of sacrifice depending on the degree of wealth the person has. In the middle option, two birds can be brought, one of which is a burnt offering.

    Note: There are other sacrifices that have secondary options for the poor and are often called "Rising and Falling Offerings" as well. However this one is distinct in that it has three options instead of two.​

    Convert's Offering (Num. 15:14) - A convert has to bring this sacrifice from either an animal or two birds (dove or pigeon) both of which will be treated as Burnt Offerings.

    Leper's Offering (not really leprosy) (Lev. 14:10) - Eight days after the leper is purified, he brings a lamb or if he can't afford that, a dove or pigeon.

    Nazirite's Offering (Num. 6:10, 14) - A Nazirite who became impure through contact with a dead body before the length of his vow is completed brings two doves or pigeons. When he completes his vow, he brings a lamb.

    Flow Offering (not for rhyming skill) (Lev. 15:14-15, 29-30) - A male of female who has had certain types of abnormal emissions bring two birds one of which is a Burnt Offering.​

    Ram of the High Priest on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:3) - Among the sacrifices the High Priest brings over the course of the Day of Atonement is a personal Burnt Offering in the form of a ram for himself and his household.​

    Obligatory Public Sacrifices

    Perpetual Offering (Num. 28:3-4) - Brought twice daily: in the morning and the afternoon. This sacrifice is brought from a lamb.

    Additional Offering - There are eight additional offerings brought at various times of the year.

    Sabbath (Num. 28:9) - Two lambs

    New Moon (Num. 28:11) - Two bulls, one ram, seven sheep

    Passover (Num. 28:19) - Two bulls, one ram, seven sheep each of the seven days

    Weeks (Num. 28:27) - Two bulls, one ram, seven sheep

    Tabernacles (Num. 29:13-34) - Two rams and seven sheep each of the seven sheep. In addition to that, 13 bulls are brought the first day, 12 the second, etc. until the seventh day when 7 are brought.

    Eighth Day of Convocation (Num. 29:36) - One bull, one ram and seven sheep.​

    New Year (Num. 29:2) - One bull, one ram, seven sheep.

    Day of Atonement (Num. 29:8) - One bull, one ram, seven sheep​

    Brought with the Sheaf Offering (Lev. 23:12) - On the second day of Passover, together with the barely Sheaf Offering, a lamb was brought as a burnt offering (in addition to the regular Additional Offering).​

    Brought with the Two Breads (Lev. 23:18) - On Weeks, together with the Two Breads, bull, two rams and seven sheep were brought (in addition to the regular Additional Offering).​

    Ram of the Public Offering for the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:5) - On the Day of Atonement, the High Priest offers a ram as a Burnt Offering. One opinion is that the ram from the Additional Offering was used. Another opinion is that a separate ram was used for this.​

    Bull for Idolatry (Num. 15:24) - If the Sanhedrin makes a mistake in their judgement and causes the nation to perform idol worship, a bull is brought as a Burnt Offering.​
     
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  2. Tumah

    Tumah Veteran Member

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    Sin Offering

    Sin Offering are split into two types: Inner and Outer Sin Offerings.

    What defines something as being an inner our outer sin offering is whether the blood from the sacrifice is sprinkled inside the sanctuary (on the curtain separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies and the Altar of Incense or on the Day of Atonement between the poles of the Ark) or outside on the Altar of Burnt Offerings.

    Confusingly, Inner Sin Offerings are actually burnt outside the Temple (excepting a few small parts) and in fact outside Jerusalem in a place called the House of the Ashes. Meanwhile, Outer Sin Offerings are burnt completely inside the Temple.

    Like the Burnt Offering, it was slaughtered in the North of the Inner Courtyard. However different sacrifices had different requirements for sprinkling the blood, both in terms of place of sprinkling and number of times. The two types of Sin Offerings are also distinct from the Burnt Offering. The Inner Sin Offering isn't burnt on the Altar of Burnt Offerings unlike the Burnt Offering as it's burnt outside the city, not inside the Temple. The Outer Sin Offering is mostly eaten by the Priests with the exception of the parts that were burnt on the Altar of Burnt Offering, unlike the Burnt Offering which was completely burnt on the Altar. They have until sunrise of the following day to eat it and may only do so within the Temple.

    Inner Sin Offering

    Bull for a Concealed Matter from the Public (Lev. 4:13-21) - This offering is brought when the Sanhedrin makes a mistaken ruling that causes the public to transgress a prohibition whose punishment is to be cut off. There is a question whether it is brought on behalf of the twelve tribes or on behalf of the Sanhedrin.

    Bull of the Anointed Priest (Lev. 4:3-11) - This offering is brought by the High Priest if he makes a mistaken ruling that causes him to sin.

    Bull of the Head Priest on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:3) - Brought by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement for himself, his household and all the priests.

    Goat for the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:9) - The twin to the famous goat to Azazel, brought to atone for the sins of the nation.​

    Goat for Idolatry (Num. 15:24) - As with the bull Burnt Offering above, this is brought when the Sanhedrin makes a mistake in judgement that causes the nation to commit idolatry.​

    Outer Sin Offering

    Sin Offering (Lev. 4:27-35) - A nanny or ewe is brought for accidentally transgressing a sins of the sort whose punishment is to be cut off when committed purposely. Accidental for these purposes mean that one either was unaware that the action was prohibited or that one was unaware that the circumstances rendered the action prohibited.

    Goat of the Prince (Lev. 4:22-23) - A prince is defined as anyone who's at the very top of the totem pole. For any sin where a regular person would bring a nanny or ewe, a prince brings a billy.

    Rising and Falling Offering (Lev. 5:1-13) - Brought for (1) a swear accidentally made in vain or unfulfilled oath, or (2) purposely falsely swearing in court that one has not testimony to present in favor of a party or (3) accidentally entering the Temple or eating a sacrifice while impure. The option for those who can afford it is either a nanny or ewe as a Sin Offering. Less affluent individuals bring two birds (doves or pigeons) one of which is brought as a Sin Offering. The lowest rung is a Meal Offering brought as a Sin Offering.​

    Purifying Sin Offerings

    Puerperal Offering (Lev. 12:6, 8) - Along with the Burnt Offering, a puerperal mother also brings a dove or pigeon as a Sin Offering at the completion of 40 or 80 days. Also, if she can't afford a lamb as a Burnt Offering, she brings two birds in it's place, one of which is as a Sin Offering.

    Leper's Offering (not really leprosy) (14:10-13) On the day following seven days of purity, the leper brings three lambs (one female two males), one of which (a male) is as a Sin Offering.

    Flow Offering (not for rhyming skill) (15:14-15, 29-30) At the conclusion of seven days of purity following certain types of abnormal emission, two birds are brought one of which is as a Sin Offering.​


    Nazirite Sin Offering (Num. 6:10-11, 14) - If a Nazritie accidentally comes in contact with a dead body within the period of his Nazritie vow, he brings two birds, one of which is brought as a Sin Offering. At the conclusion of the Nazirite vow, he brings a female lamb for a Sin Offering.​


    Public Sin Offering (Num. 28-29) - This is a goat brought as a Sin Offerings along with all the Additional Offerings of the Sabbath and holidays mentioned above.​

    Fault Offering

    Unlike the Sin Offering which are brought from various animals of both genders and ages, the Fault Offering is only brought from male sheep: either rams or lambs. The Fault Offering will also always have it’s blood sprinkled twice on two corners of the Altar of Burnt Offerings. It must be eaten within the Temple by sunrise of the following day by the serving Priests after the regular parts are burnt on the Altar of Burn Sacrifices. There are only six types of Fault Offerings and they’re brought in a very limited number of situations:

    Thievery Fault Offering (Lev. 5:21-26) - A ram is brought for robbing someone with their knowledge (ie. as opposed to when they don’t know they’ve been robbed) or withholding owed money and then taking an oath in court falsely that no money is owed to the other party whether purposely or accidentally. It can only be brought once the principle is paid to the creditor.

    Trespass Fault Offering (Lev. 5:15-16) - A ram is brought for accidentally removing Temple possession from the Temple’s possession. It can only be brought after the principle value of the item was paid to the Temple.

    Designated Maid Fault Offering (Lev. 19:20-22) - A ram is brought for having relations with a non-Jewish maid who was betrothed to a Jewish slave.

    Nazirite Fault Offering (Num. 6:9-12) - A Nazirite who came in contact with a dead human body within the period of his Nazirite vows, brings a male lamb for this offering.

    Leper’s Fault Offering (not really leprosy) (Lev. 14:10-12) - A leper brings a male lamb for this offering on the eighth day of his purification process. Unlike other Fault Offerings, this one comes with an extra liter of oil and they wave stuff around and it’s fun.​

    Conditional Fault Offering (Lev. 5:17-18) - A personal Sin Offering is brought for certain sins when they were done accidentally. In the event one is not sure whether one committed the transgression accidentally so as to be required to bring a Sin Offering, one brings a ram as a Conditional Fault Offering.​

    Peace Offering

    The Peace Offering is a special type of sacrifice in that it's eaten by "everyone": The Altar of Burnt Offerings (the same fats and organs mentioned above), the Priest (the chest and right hind leg) and the person who brought it (everything else). It must be eaten by the following day's sunset, but can be eaten anywhere in Jerusalem. Another difference between it and other sacrifices is that it can be slaughtered anywhere in the inner courtyard, rather than just in the northern part of the inner courtyard. Two sprinklings of blood are made at the corners of the Altar of Burnt Offerings.

    Donation Peace Offerings (Lev. 3:1) - the Donation Offering is a voluntary offering. If a person makes a vow to bring a Peace Offering for whatever reason, this is what he brings.​

    Celebratory Peace Offerings (Ex. 23:14) - Based on verse 18 of the same chapter where the phrase "the fats of my celebration" is used, implying the fats of some sacrifice, it's understood that verse 14 is referring to another type of sacrifice that came to be called the Celebratory Peace Offering. This Offering has to be brought during each of the Three Pilgrimages one time (preferably on the first day).

    Joy Peace Offering (Deut. 16:14) - Based on Deut. 27:7 where sacrificing a Peace Offering is connected to being joyous, it is understood that this verse in Deut. 16:14 is a command to bring a Peace Offering during the Three Pilgrimages. Unlike other offerings, this commandment can be fulfilled by eating any other types of animal (not bird or meal) sacrifices.​

    Celebratory Offering of the 14th (Deut. 16:2) - In this verse both flock and cattle are commanded to be brought on Passover. However, the actual Passover sacrifice can only be a sheep or goat. From here it is understood that there is another type of sacrifice that can be brought from cattle and that was named the Celebratory Offering of the 14th. It's a unique sacrifice in that it's not required to be brought, it's only available so as to fulfill the requirement to eat the Passover sacrifice to satiety. If a lot of people were counted to one Passover sacrifice, there might not have been enough to go around and so this sacrifice was brought to fill everyone up, at which point they'd fulfill the Passover requirement with just a small piece.

    Peace Offering of the First Fruits (Deut. 26:11) - Similar to the Joy Peace Offering, this verse also mentions being joyous when bringing the First Fruits. Hence a Peace Offering is understood to be required as well.

    Thanksgiving Offering (Lev. 7:12-15) - This sacrifice is brought when one wishes to offer thanks to G-d, usually after salvation from a life-endangering circumstance. It is unique as a Peace Offering in that it must be brought with 40 loaves of bread (10 each of 4 different types) and instead of having until sundown of the following day to eat it, you only have until sunrise of the following day.

    Ram of the Nazirite (Num. 6:14) - Brought at the conclusion of the Nazirite vows along with 20 loaves of bread (10 each of 2 different types).

    Peace Offering of Convocation
    (Lev. 23:19) - Two lambs were brought along with the special Bread Offering on the festival of Weeks. This is another unique Peace Offering in that it's the only public Peace Offering and it must be eaten within the Temple only until the following sunrise.​
     
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  3. Tumah

    Tumah Veteran Member

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    [Animal] Tithe (Lev. 27:32)

    This commandment is to bring one tenth of all cattle, sheep and goats to the Temple as a sacrifice. On the New Moon of the month of Elul (30 days before the New Year) one was required to count the new animals born that year and separate every tenth for sacrifice. It could be slaughtered anywhere in the Inner Courtyard of the Temple and only one sprinkling of blood was made. After the regular parts were burnt on the Altar of Burnt Sacrifices, the remainder of the animal(s) was(were) returned to the owner to be eaten in Jerusalem by sunset of the following day.

    Note: This is obviously intended to be for charity. The requirement is to eat it within a day. A farmer with tons of animals isn't going to accomplish this unless he invites everyone he passes to join him.

    First-Born (Ex. 13:12-13; Num. 18:15-19)

    For this commandment, the first-born of any cow, ewe or nanny was to be brought to the Temple as a sacrifice. This sacrifice can be slaughtered anywhere in the Inner Courtyard and only needs one sprinkling of blood. After the regular parts were burnt on the Altar of Burnt Sacrifices, the Priests and their families were to eat it anywhere in Jerusalem by the following sunset.

    If the animal was blemished and could not be brought as a sacrifice, the animal is given to the priest who can eat it whenever and wherever he wants as mundane food.

    The first-born of donkeys are to be redeemed with a lamb or kid (or if none are available, monetary value) which is then handed over to a priest. This is not a sacrifice and the priest may do whatever he wants with it.

    Passover (Ex. 12:43; 9:11)

    This most famous of the sacrifices actually has some unique characteristics.
    • It's slaughtered on the afternoon of the 14th of Nissan, but can only be eaten that night (technically the next day).
    • It's prohibited to have any leavening in the home at the time of the slaughtering of the sacrifice.
    • It must be eaten with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.
    • It must be eaten barbecued and not baked or boiled; with its head and legs pinned to the body.
    • It is eaten in groups and must be eaten that night. Which means you need enough people to finish the entire animal in one night.
    • If someone misses the 14th of Nissan due to being too far away at the time or ritually impure, there's a make-up day a month later on the 14th of Iyar.
    Along with that, like some other sacrifices, it could be slaughtered anywhere in the Inner Courtyard and only needed one sprinkling of blood. It was brought from lambs or kids. Especially the ones that sneak cookies after you've told them that it's going to be supper time in 20 minutes and you don't want them to spoil their appetite.

    Meal Offerings


    Libation Meal Offerings (multiple sources) - These are the meal offerings mentioned above that were brought with the bull, goat or sheep Burnt or Sin Offerings. It was made with fine flour and oil mixed together and burnt completely on the Alter of Burnt Offerings.​

    For Sheep (Num. 15:4-5) : ~1.5 kilograms of flour mixed with ~ 1 liter oil, ~ 1 liter wine.

    For Rams (Num. 15:6-7) - ~ 3 kilograms of flour mixed with ~ 1.3 liters oil, 1.3 liters wine.

    For Bulls (Num. 15:9-10) - ~5 kilograms of flour mixed with ~ 2 liters oil, 2 liters wine.​

    Public Meal Offerings

    Meal Offering of the Sheaf (Lev. 23:10) - This was brought from barley flour of the new crop on the 16 of Nissan and it's sacrifice permitted the new grain crops to be eaten. They baked the kernels first, then ground it, sifted it and mixed with oil and some frankincense. A handful of it was thrown onto the Altar of Burnt Offerings and the remainder was eaten by the Priests.

    Two Loaves (Lev. 23:17) - This was brought on the Festival of Weeks from wheat flour mixed with some water that was allowed to leaven (unlike most Meal Offerings which were unleavened) and baked in an oven. It wasn't burned but eaten by the Priests.

    Show Bread (Lev. 24:5-8) - These were twelve loaves bread baked from unleavened wheat flour by specially hired bakers to give it its special shape. They were baked every Friday and on the following day, the previous weeks Breads would be removed and eaten by the Priests working at the Temple and the new Breads put up.​

    Personal Meal Offerings

    Required Meal Offerings

    Meal Offering of the Sinner (Lev. 5:11-12) - This offering is brought for those who can't afford to bring the animal or bird offerings of the Rising and Falling Sacrifice. It's brought from ~1.5 kilograms of flour. There is an argument whether water was added to it or not (unlike all other meal offerings which had oil and/or water)

    Meal Offering of the Suspected [Wife] (Num. 5:15) - This offering is brought by the husband when he brings his wife to undergo the Trial of Bitter Waters. It's brought from 1.5 kilo of barley flour.

    Meal Offering of the Dedication (Lev. 6:12-15) - This offering was brought by a priest the first time he begins his Temple service. It was made with 1.5 kilo of flour and 3 liters of oil. They divided the flour in a half and made six loaves of unleavened bread out of each half of flour mixed with some oil. Boiling water was poured on it. Then it was kneaded, baked in an oven and fried (in a flat frying pan or griddle) in the remainder of oil. Then each loaf was folded in half and broken apart. A half from each loaf was burnt in the morning and the other halves in the evening. The entire thing was burnt on the Altar of Burnt Offerings. And frankly I think that's wise.

    Meal Offering of the Anointed Priest
    (Lev. 6:12-15) - Same as the Meal Offering of Dedication except this was brought by the High Priest every day.

    Meal Offering for the Ram of the Nazirite (Num. 6:15) - The Nazirite, at the completion of his Nazirite vows, brings a ram along with two types of Meal Offerings made from just under 10 kilo of fine flour. Half is made into 10 flat breads smeared with oil and the other half is made into 10 loaves where the wheat is scalded kneaded, baked and fried.​

    Donated Meal Offering

    There are a four ways Meal Offerings were made (besides those special types listed above). One could voluntarily choose to bring any of these types of meal offerings:​

    Fine Wheat Offering (Lev. 2:1) - For the cookie dough lovers, this fine concoction is made with a ratio of approx. 1.5 kilo finely ground flour to approx. 1 liter oil. 1/3 of the oil is placed in a vessel, then the flour and an additional 1/3 of the oil is added and the mixture is mixed thoroughly. The last third of oil is poured on top and a handful of frankincense is placed on it.

    Pan Offering (Lev. 2:5) - For those that enjoy pancakes. The same ratio of flour to oil (1.5 kg :1 liter) and processing is fried in a shallow pan or griddle before the last 1/3 of oil is added. Then they crumble it up and add the oil, a handful of frankincense and voila. Did I mention the priests were meant to eat this after a handful was placed on the Altar of Burnt Sacrifices? Bon apetit.

    Pot Offering (Lev. 2:7) - Pretty much the same as the pan offering, except this one was deep fried.
    This is what happens when the incense department hoards all the spices.

    Baked Offering (Lev. 2:4) - For the low calorie diet. This sacrifice is made from a minimum of 1.5 kg flour to 1 liter oil. The flour is either mixed with a portion of the oil or water. Baked in an oven, they are then made into either loaves of bread or crackers. Then the remaining oil is smeared across it or they're dipped in it.​

    Thanksgiving Meal Offering (Lev. 7:12-13) - This Meal Offering is part of the Thanksgiving sacrifice which is a voluntary offering. That sacrifice has an additional requirement that 40 loaves of bread be brought. Those 40 include 10 loaves made made with 15 kilo of wheat flour minus the amount of leavening needed to cause them to become leavened and 30 loaves made from 15 kilo of unleavened wheat flour. The 30 loaves are split into three types: 10 are mixed with oil and made thick, then baked in an oven. 10 are made into flat breads and smeared with oil. And for the last 10, the wheat is scalded with boiling water, baked and then fried.​
     
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  4. Rival

    Rival Veteran Member
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    Sticky sticky sticky.
     
  5. Akivah

    Akivah Well-Known Member

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    I am copying all this to Word for my permanent files.
     
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