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The bible has 8 types of marriages

Discussion in 'Biblical Debates' started by Rex, Dec 29, 2004.

  1. Rex

    Rex Founder

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    [font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica]The standard nuclear family: Genesis 2:24 describes how a man leaves his family of origin, joins with a woman, consummates the marriage and lives as a couple. There were quite a few differences between the customs and laws of contemporary North Americans and of ancient Israelites. In ancient Israel:


    [font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica]Inter-faith marriages were theoretically forbidden. However, they were sometimes formed.[/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica]Children of inter-faith marriages were considered illegitimate.[/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica]Marriages were generally arranged by family or friends; they did not result from a gradually evolving, loving relationship that developed during a period of courtship.[/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]A bride who had been presented as a virgin and who could not be proven to be one was stoned to death by the men of her village. (Deuteronomy 22:13-21) There appears to have been no similar penalty for men who engaged in consensual pre-marital sexual activity.[/font] [/font]

    [font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica]Polygyny marriage: [font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]A man would leave his family of origin and join with his first wife. Then, as finances allowed, he would marry as many additional women as he desired. The new wives would join the man and his other wives in an already established household. Polygyny was practiced by members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Mormons, until the practice was suspended, a least temporarily, in the late 19th century. It is still practiced by separated fundamentalist Mormon groups which have been excommunicated from the main church.

    There are many references to polygynous marriages in the Bible:[/font][/font]


    [font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Lamech, in Genesis 4:19, became the first known polygynist. He had two wives. [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Subsequent men in polygynous relationships included: [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Esau with 3 wives; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Jacob: 2; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Ashur: 2; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Gideon: many; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Elkanah: 2; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]David: many; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Solomon had 700 wives of royal birth; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Rehaboam: 3; [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Abijah: 14. [/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Jehoram, Joash, Ahab, Jeholachin and Belshazzar also had multiple wives.[/font][/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica]From the historical record, it is known that Herod the Great (73 to 4 BCE) had nine wives.[/font][font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica]We have been unable to find references to polyandrous marriages in the Bible -- unions involving one woman and more than one man. It is unlikely that many existed because of the distinctly inferior status given to women; they were often treated as property in the Hebrew Scriptures.[/font]



    [font=trebuchet ms,arial,helvetica][font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Levirate Marriage: The name of this type of marriage is derived from the Latin word "levir," which means "brother-in-law." This involved a woman who was widowed without having borne a son. She would be required to leave her home, marry her brother-in-law, live with him, and engage in sexual relations. If there were feelings of attraction and love between the woman and her new husband, this arrangement could be quite agreeable to both. Otherwise, the woman would have to endure what was essentially serial rapes with her former brother-in-law as perpetrator. Their first-born son was considered to be sired by the deceased husband. In Genesis 38:6-10, Tamar's husband Er was killed by God for unspecified sinful behavior. Er's brother, Onan, was then required by custom to marry Tamar. Not wanting to have a child who would not be consider his, he engaged in an elementary (and quite unreliable) method of birth control: coitis interruptus. God appears to have given a very high priority to the levirate marriage obligation. Being very displeased with Onan's behavior, God killed him as well. Ruth 4 reveals that a man would be required to enter into a levirate marriage not only with his late brother's widow, but with a widow to whom he was the closest living relative.[/font]

    A man, a woman and her property -- a female slave: [font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]As described in Genesis 16, Sarah and Abram were infertile. Sarah owned Hagar, a female slave who apparently had been purchased earlier in Egypt. Because Hagar was Sarah's property, she could dispose of her as she wished. Sarah gave Hagar to Abram as a type of wife, so that Abram would have an heir. Presumably, the arrangement to marry and engage in sexual activity was done without the consent of Hagar, who had such a low status in the society of the day that she was required to submit to what she probably felt were serial rapes by Abram. Hagar conceived and bore a son, Ishmael. This type of marriage had some points of similarity to polygamous marriage, as described above. However, Hagar's status as a human slave in a plural marriage with two free individuals makes it sufficiently different to warrant separate treatment here.[/font]

    A man, one or more wives, and some concubines: [font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]A man could keep numerous concubines, in addition to one or more wives. These women held an even lower status than a wife. As implied in Genesis 21:10, a concubine could be dismissed when no longer wanted. According to Smith's Bible Dictionary, "A concubine would generally be either (1) a Hebrew girl bought...[from] her father; (2) a Gentile captive taken in war; (3) a foreign slave bought; or (4) a Canaanitish woman, bond or free." 1 They would probably be brought into an already-established household. Abraham had two concubines; Gideon: at least 1; Nahor: 1; Jacob: 1; Eliphaz: 1; Gideon: 1; Caleb: 2; Manassah: 1; Saul: 1; David: at least 10; Rehoboam: 60; Solomon: 300!; an unidentified Levite: 1; Belshazzar: more than 1.[/font]

    A male soldier and a female prisoner of war: Numbers 31:1-18 describes how [font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]army of the ancient Israelites killed every adult Midianite male in battle. Moses then ordered the slaughter in cold blood of most of the captives, including all of the male children who numbered about 32,000. Only the lives of 32,000 women - all virgins -- were spared. [/font]Some of the latter were given to the priests as slaves. Most were taken by the Israeli soldiers as captives of war. Deuteronomy 21:11-14 describes how each captive woman would shave her head, pare her nails, be left alone to mourn the loss of her families, friends, and freedom. After a full month has passed, they would be required to submit to their owners sexually, as a wife. It is conceivable that in a few cases, a love bond might have formed between the soldier and his captive(s). However, in most cases we can assume that the woman had to submit sexually against her will; that is, she was raped.

    A male rapist and his victim: [font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]Deuteronomy 22:28-29 requires that a female virgin who is not engaged to be married and who has been raped must marry her attacker, no matter what her feelings were towards the rapist. A man could become married by simply sexually attacking a woman that appealed to him, and paying his father-in-law 50 shekels of silver. There is one disadvantage of this approach: he was not allowed to subsequently divorce her.[/font]

    [font=Trebuchet MS, Arial, Helvetica]A male and female slave: Exodus 21:4 indicates that a slave owner could assign one of his female slaves to one of his male slaves as a wife. There is no indication that women were consulted during this type of transaction.[/font] The arrangement would probably involve rape in most cases. In the times of the Hebrew Scriptures, Israelite women who were sold into slavery by their fathers were slaves forever. Men, and women who became slaves by another route, were limited to serving as slaves for seven years. When a male slave left his owner, the marriage would normally be terminated; his wife would stay behind, with any children that she had. He could elect to stay a slave if he wished.

    taken from religioustolerance.org[/font][/font]
     
  2. Ronald

    Ronald Well-Known Member

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    Odd! 8 types of marriges and not one how to!
     
  3. Khale

    Khale Active Member

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    This wasn't really a type of marriage. Just a way to continue the family if the wife was infertile. The child kept the last name of the married couple and was assumed to be naturally born by the married couple. In other words they stole the baby.
     
  4. t3gah

    t3gah Well-Known Member

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    Very interesting data from relig..tolerance.

    Almost equally interesting is the statement or rather the confirmation statement that Jesus makes about the book of Genesis and the man/woman leave parents, etc meaning what it means and yet Solomon was unequaled with the ladies. One wife? No, 300 plus 300 concubines.

    So where is the scripture that says you can only have one wife? The chosen people seemed to have broken that law many times over!
     
  5. standing_on_one_foot

    standing_on_one_foot Well-Known Member

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    Nowhere does it say that in the scriptures, I believe. At least in the OT, I don't know about the NT.
     
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