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Study: Everyone hates environmentalists and feminists

Discussion in 'General Debates' started by ben d, Sep 29, 2013.

  1. dust1n

    dust1n Zindīq

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    Source?
     
  2. Riverwolf

    Riverwolf Amateur Rambler / Proud Ergi
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    That's completely missing the point. I don't think anyone can say that Leifeldian proportions are there to titillate women.

    The message with that depiction is quite clear: men are big and strong, women are small (except in the chest and glutes) and fragile.

    It's not about "attainment." Women aren't depicted in hyper-sexualized ways to tell women that that's how they should be. They're depicted like that to sell products through titillation of the male audience.

    IOW, the big, muscular male is what the young male audience wants to be, and the hyper-sexualized women are their prizes. This is fine in deliberately juvenile comedy games like Duke Nukem 3D or softcore porn games like DOA XTreme Beach Vollyball. This is NOT okay when trying to tell a deep, compelling, mature story like Mass Effect or The Witcher.

    In your subculture, perhaps. In mine, women are harassed FAR more by men than vice-versa (the fact that these same men often harass other men is no excuse). It's not just sexual harassment; it's just harassment in general.

    If you have access, boot up Halo or Call of Duty, play a few matches posing as a woman, and watch what happens.
     
    #62 Riverwolf, Oct 27, 2013
    Last edited: Oct 27, 2013
  3. Riverwolf

    Riverwolf Amateur Rambler / Proud Ergi
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    Ah. Gotcha.

    I'd say there's a very real goal, at least where I stand.
     
  4. Me Myself

    Me Myself Back to my username

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    Agreed. What I mean its that at its core. Feminism was born as something to give rights to women (which was and is a necessary goal) but there was no roof to it. Probably or maybe because in such an underdog fight they wouldnt have expected to need any.

    The "equal rights for all genders" is a roof because it means women's eights shouldnt be above men's rights.
     
  5. Penumbra

    Penumbra Veteran Member
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    I stopped playing Starcraft with a clearly female username (my name with numbers after it) because of harassment. I switched to using usernames that were not gendered at all, which leads people to assume it's a male, and the harassment stopped. It was nice.

    That was years ago though, I don't know what would happen if I tried it again with Starcraft 2, and I haven't played that in months anyway.
     
  6. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    They had three samples for the pilot studies alone (there were 5 main studies apart from the 3 pilots):
    PILOT STUDIES A AND B
    Method

    Participants in Pilot Study A were 13 male and 26 female Americans recruited online via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (Mage = 37.59 years, SD = 12.32) who received $0.20. Participants in Pilot Study B were 49 male and 92 female undergraduate students (Mage = 19.44 years, SD = 2.02) who received course credit or $10.

    Participants in Pilot Study A were randomly assigned to rate the extent to which 12 ‘militant/aggressive’ (e.g. ‘aggressive’ and ‘forceful’), 9 ‘eccentric/unconventional’ (e.g. ‘eccentric’ and ‘unusual’) and 12 ‘personable’ (‘friendly’ and ‘pleasant’; all Cronbach's αs > .91) traits, which were selected on the basis of past research on feminist stereotypes (Berryman-Fink & Verderber, 1985; Twenge & Zucker, 1991), were characteristic of either a ‘typical’ feminist or a ‘typical’ American. Ratings were made along 7-point scales anchored at 1 (not at all characteristic of a ‘typical’ feminist/American) and 7 (very characteristic of a ‘typical’ feminist/American).

    In Pilot Study B, participants assigned to one condition rated the extent to which 12 militant/aggressive (e.g. ‘militant’ and ‘abrasive’), 14 eccentric/unconventional (e.g. ‘eccentric’ and ‘odd-looking’) and 12 personable (e.g. ‘pleasant’ and ‘personable’; all αs > .81) traits were characteristic of a ‘typical’ environmentalist. We note that these traits overlapped heavily with those used in aforementioned Pilot Study A but were selected on the basis of representations of environmentalists in sociological texts and government reports (Brown, 2007; FBI, 2001). Participants assigned to a second condition rated a ‘typical’ university student, an individual whom student participants would view as a more mainstream member of society, on the same traits. Ratings were made along 7-point scales anchored at 1 (not at all characteristic of a ‘typical’ environmentalist/student) and 7 (very characteristic of a ‘typical’ environmentalist/student).

    Results

    Pilot Study A

    Independent t-tests revealed that participants viewed both militant and eccentric traits to be more characteristic of ‘typical’ feminists (Mmilitant&#8201;=&#8201;5.36, SD&#8201;=&#8201;1.26; Meccentric&#8201;=&#8201;4.67, SD&#8201;=&#8201;1.29) than of ‘typical’ Americans (Mmilitant&#8201;=&#8201;4.05, SD&#8201;=&#8201;1.23; Meccentric&#8201;=&#8201;3.18, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.91), ts&#8201;>&#8201;3.25, ps&#8201;<&#8201;.003, rs&#8201;>&#8201;.47. Personable traits, in comparison, were viewed as less characteristic of ‘typical’ feminists (M&#8201;=&#8201;3.55, SD&#8201;=&#8201;1.29) than of ‘typical’ Americans (M&#8201;=&#8201;4.60, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.69), t(37)&#8201;=&#8201;3.31, p&#8201;=&#8201;.002, r&#8201;=&#8201;.48.

    Pilot Study B

    Two participants who were asked to rate a ‘typical’ student and indicated that there is no such thing as a ‘typical’ student were excluded. Thus, 49 male and 90 female participants were included in analyses. As was the case for feminists, participants viewed ‘typical’ environmentalists (Meccentric&#8201;=&#8201;5.06, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.60; Mmilitant&#8201;=&#8201;3.59, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.79; Mpersonable&#8201;=&#8201;4.09, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.64) as more eccentric, more militant and less personable than ‘typical’ students (Meccentric&#8201;=&#8201;3.92, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.52; Mmilitant&#8201;=&#8201;3.29, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.57; Mpersonable&#8201;=&#8201;4.54, SD&#8201;=&#8201;0.56), ts&#8201;>&#8201;2.25, ps&#8201;<&#8201;.04, rs&#8201;>&#8201;.19.1

    Pilot Study C

    Pilot Studies A and B indicate that individuals have negative stereotypes of two key activist groups: feminists and environmentalists. Given that the traits included in these pilot studies were selected from previous research and scholarly texts (e.g. Brown, 2007; Twenge & Zucker, 1991), we used these pilot studies as a basis for creating the stereotype measures used in Studies 1–3. We also, however, conducted an additional pilot study to verify that the traits identified in Pilot Studies A and B are not simply an artefact of the specific traits included in these initial pilot studies. We then used the traits identified in this additional pilot study to create the stereotype measure for Studies 4 and 5. In Pilot Study C, participants generated their own traits of ‘typical’ feminists and environmentalists.

    Method

    Participants were 228 Americans recruited online via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (Mage&#8201;=&#8201;33.75&#8201;years, SD&#8201;=&#8201;11.71) who received $0.60. There were 92 male and 131 female participants. Five participants did not identify their biological sex. Participants generated 20 traits characteristic of a ‘typical’ feminist and 20 traits characteristic of a ‘typical’ environmentalist. The order of tasks was counterbalanced across participants.

    Results

    As predicted, the majority of traits that participants listed as being characteristic of ‘typical’ feminists and environmentalists were militant/aggressive and eccentric/unconventional traits. Table&#8201;1 contains the 30 most frequently listed traits for each group. Specifically, feminists were described in terms of militant/aggressive traits, such as ‘man hating’ and ‘forceful’, and with eccentric/unconventional traits, such as ‘behaves like a man’ and ‘unhygienic’. Environmentalists were described in terms of militant/aggressive traits, such as ‘militant’ and ‘forceful’, and eccentric/unconventional traits, such as ‘eccentric’ and ‘tree-hugger’. Participants listed additional traits describing feminists or environmentalists that did not fall obviously into either of these categories (e.g. ‘animal lover’ and ‘Democrat’). Overall, however, the traits provided were overwhelmingly negative, with only a handful of more positive traits (e.g. ‘caring’ and ‘educated’) appearing on either list. Thus, it appears that individuals have negative perceptions of both feminists and environmentalists, viewing them primarily as aggressive militants and unconventional eccentrics rather than as pleasant and personable individuals. Notably, although we did not ask participants to describe either environmental or feminist ‘activists’ per se, they spontaneously ascribed this trait to both groups: ‘activist’ was one of the top 10 most frequently listed traits for both groups.
     
    #66 LegionOnomaMoi, Oct 27, 2013
    Last edited: Oct 27, 2013
  7. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    From the study's conclusions:

    "The present research shows that individuals' stereotypes of activists influence their support for social change. Previously, researchers have attempted to understand resistance to social change by examining individuals' perceptions of social issues, attitudes towards social change and personality traits (e.g. Feygina et al., 2010; Hodson & Esses, 2002; van Zomeren et al., 2008). The present research, in comparison, assesses the extent to which individuals' stereotypes of activists, the agents of social change, increase resistance to social change. Individuals believe that it is important and socially desirable to support social change (Beattie, 2010; Nelson et al., 2008), which suggests that they should view activists favourably and be receptive to their efforts. Unfortunately, however, the very nature of activism leads to negative stereotyping: By aggressively promoting change and advocating unconventional practices, activists become associated with hostile militancy and unconventionality or eccentricity. Indeed, we show that the tendency to associate ‘typical’ activists with these negative stereotypes mediates individuals' unfavourable reactions to the activists. Specifically, individuals avoid affiliating with ‘typical’ activists (Studies 1 and 3–5) because they view them as militant/aggressive and eccentric/unconventional. Furthermore, this tendency to associate activists with negative stereotypes and perceive them as people with whom it would be unpleasant to affiliate reduces individuals' motivation to adopt the pro-change behaviours that activists advocate (Studies 2–4). This research indicates, therefore, that stereotypes and person perception processes more generally influence individuals' receptiveness to activists and their pro-change initiatives.

    Our studies also reveal the nuances of these effects by showing that individuals do not avoid affiliating with and adopting the behaviours advocated by all activists. Indeed, although participants reacted negatively to the ‘typical’ activists, their willingness to affiliate with and adopt the behaviours advocated by ‘atypical’ activists and undefined targets did not differ. This suggests that it is not mere membership in an activist group but rather the degree to which an activist conforms to group stereotypes that influences perceivers' reactions. Whereas individuals may avoid affiliating with and emulating activists who seem to conform to activist stereotypes, they may be more receptive to activists who defy these stereotypes by coming across as pleasant and approachable.

    The present findings also contribute theoretically by illustrating effects that differ from those observed in research on message source typicality. On the basis of source typicality research (Ziegler & Diehl, 2011; Ziegler, Diehl, & Ruther, 2002), individuals should respond more favourably to messages containing strong arguments and less favourably to messages containing weak arguments when they are delivered by an ‘atypical’ activist rather than a ‘typical’ activist or undefined target. Indeed, ‘atypical’ activists possess ‘atypical’ combinations of personality traits (i.e. personable and environmentalist), whereas ‘typical’ activists and undefined targets do not. According to source typicality research, therefore, ‘atypical’ activists should disconfirm perceivers' expectations and elicit greater information processing. In our studies, however, participants responded similarly to the message delivered by the ‘atypical’ activists and undefined targets.

    Researchers have also examined message source typicality in terms of the fit between the position advocated in a message (e.g. pro-environmental stance) and the message source (e.g. director of an environmental group versus CEO of an oil company; Eagly, Wood, & Chaiken, 1978). In our studies, both the ‘typical’ and ‘atypical’ activists were portrayed as individuals who advocate social change whereas the undefined targets were not. Indeed, participants in Study 3 viewed the ‘typical’ and ‘atypical’ environmentalists to be similarly environmentally friendly, t(96)&#8201;=&#8201;.06, p&#8201;=&#8201;.96, and significantly more environmentally friendly than the undefined target, ts&#8201;>&#8201;5.51, ps&#8201;<&#8201;.001. Source typicality research would suggest, therefore, that individuals should respond similarly to messages delivered by ‘typical’ and ‘atypical’ activists and differently to messages delivered by these targets versus undefined targets. We show, however, that individuals differed in their pro-change behavioural intentions when these behaviours were advocated by ‘typical’ versus ‘atypical’ activists but not when these behaviours were advocated by ‘atypical’ activists versus undefined targets. Thus, whereas our data are consistent with the argument that stereotypes influence individuals' reactions to activists, they are inconsistent with alternative explanations based on source typicality research.

    Although we examined the implications of activist stereotypes for social change by focusing on two key activist groups, we argue that the militant and eccentric traits that characterize these groups also characterize a variety of activist groups (e.g. gay rights, political democracy and Occupy Wall Street activists). Some activist groups (e.g. gun control advocates) maybe less likely to engage in overtly aggressive advocacy and may, therefore, be less likely to be perceived as militant. We note, however, that many of the stereotypical traits generated by participants in Pilot Study C describe activists as argumentative and confrontational but not necessarily violent (e.g. ‘forceful’, ‘self-righteous’, ‘assertive’ and ‘overreactive’). Because it is possible for individuals to be argumentative and confrontational even when advocating causes that explicitly condemn violence, individuals may associate militant and eccentric traits even with those activist groups that exemplify these traits less overtly than do feminists and environmentalists. In future research, it will be important to assess these possibilities directly.

    We examined individuals' reactions to activists without considering perceivers' own identity as activists. Activist and nonactivist perceivers may, however, respond differently to activist targets. Indeed, because individuals generally view ingroup members positively (Sherif, Harvey, White, Hood, & Sherif 1961; Tajfel & Turner, 1979), activist perceivers may respond relatively favourably to ‘typical’ activists. On the other hand, because individuals have especially unfavourable impressions of group members who perform undesirable behaviours (Marques, Yzerbyt, & Leyens, 1988), activist perceivers who condemn the use of militant methods to promote social change (e.g. ‘atypical’ activists) may react particularly negatively to ‘typical’ activists. In future work, researchers may wish to examine whether perceiver identity moderates reactions to activists.

    For many activists, the willingness to take a radical stand without regard for mainstream sensibilities is a point of pride. Indeed, environmental activist and author of ‘Tree Spiker’ Mike Roselle (as cited in Olafsson, 2009) defends his militant efforts to protect the environment, noting, ‘I don't think there's anything extreme about saying we have to stop pumping carbon into the air. If we're extremists, so be it. The stakes are too high’ (para. 6). The present research suggests, however, that such seemingly zealous dedication to a social cause may backfire and elicit unfavourable reactions from others. Indeed, individuals avoid affiliating with ‘typical’ activists and adopting the pro-change behaviours that these activists advocate because individuals associate them with negative stereotypes. Ironically and despite good intentions, therefore, the very individuals who are most actively engaged in promoting social change may inadvertently alienate members of the public and reduce pro-change motivation."
     
  8. DallasApple

    DallasApple Depends Upon My Mood..

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    Well I'm a feminist Nazi destroying "the church" and society as we know it!..I gather with my Nazi comarades in gaggles and we cackle in our coups as the earth implodes from our deeds .....:tribal:
     
  9. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    So YOU'RE the one! Why didn't I see you at last month's meeting?
     
    #69 LegionOnomaMoi, Oct 27, 2013
    Last edited: Oct 27, 2013
  10. Riverwolf

    Riverwolf Amateur Rambler / Proud Ergi
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    Things are only getting worse, I understand.

    Women at conventions are frequently accused of being "fake geek girls", especially if they're even remotely attractive, and treated as outcasts from one of the largest outcast subculture. Most ironic, and frankly shameful.
     
  11. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    Interesting and terrible. I have a few friends in that culture and I didn't know that. Thank you. I'll have to ask. I don't know why I assumed things would not be like that. Hm.
     
  12. DallasApple

    DallasApple Depends Upon My Mood..

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    I'm a high priestess . You would not be seeing me unless you are high ranking.Look to the trees when the wind is 30 + mph in a full moon...you will see me then...:chicken:
     
  13. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    That would explain it. I'm a mere grunt. I hope you can put in a good recommendation for me.

    *cue Lord of the Rings music*
     
  14. Riverwolf

    Riverwolf Amateur Rambler / Proud Ergi
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    This particular manifestation of harassment is fairly recent, and it's still a minority of male geeks who are the perps. But it's still far too many.

    Even F-Grade internet personality Nixie Pixel had it happen to her, and her youtube channel is all about Linux and the open source world! That's as geeky as geeky can get!! :facepalm:
     
  15. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    In your opinion, how recent (in rough years) would you say it is (I was not kidding when I said I wanted to look into this; also, it better not be happening to Felicia Day)?
     
  16. Riverwolf

    Riverwolf Amateur Rambler / Proud Ergi
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    I first started hearing about it... late last year, I believe, when an episode of Jimquisition, a topical rant show, went over the issue. Considering how much I keep up with social networks, etc.(that is, not at all), it was probably going on longer than that.
     
  17. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    Thank you
     
  18. DallasApple

    DallasApple Depends Upon My Mood..

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    I'm in the yellow and green cloud ..and next to the moon..this information is sensitive . I'm only sharing as long as you do not interrupt the mission.

    [youtube]Wflx18gM2xs[/youtube]
    Winds Over Neo-Tokyo AKIRA Symphonic Suite-3
     
  19. LegionOnomaMoi

    LegionOnomaMoi Veteran Member
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    I will guard it with my very life!
    *Immediately tweets all three and a half of his friends*
     
  20. DallasApple

    DallasApple Depends Upon My Mood..

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    Who is the half ?:ninja: I might have to turn you in. :wolverine:
     
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