1. Welcome to Religious Forums, a friendly forum to discuss all religions in a friendly surrounding.

    Your voice is missing! You will need to register to get access to the following site features:
    • Reply to discussions and create your own threads.
    • Our modern chat room. No add-ons or extensions required, just login and start chatting!
    • Access to private conversations with other members.

    We hope to see you as a part of our community soon!

Missing Matter found! Maybe.

Discussion in 'Science and Technology' started by shunyadragon, May 28, 2020.

  1. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon shunyadragon
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Mar 23, 2017
    Messages:
    15,572
    Ratings:
    +7,290
    Religion:
    Baha'i Faith
    The missing matter may not be so dark, ah . . . maybe.

    Half the matter in the universe was missing—we found it hiding in the cosmos

    Half the matter in the universe was missing—we found it hiding in the cosmos

    May 28, 2020 by J. Xavier Prochaska and Jean-Pierre MacQuart

    In the late 1990s, cosmologists made a prediction about how much ordinary matter there should be in the universe. About 5%, they estimated, should be regular stuff with the rest a mixture of dark matter and dark energy. But when cosmologists counted up everything they could see or measure at the time, they came up short. By a lot.

    The sum of all the ordinary matter that cosmologists measured only added up to about half of the 5% what was supposed to be in the universe.

    This is known as the "missing baryon problem" and for over 20 years, cosmologists like us looked hard for this matter without success.

    It took the discovery of a new celestial phenomenon and entirely new telescope technology, but earlier this year, our team finally found the missing matter.

    Origin of the problem

    Baryon is a classification for types of particles—sort of an umbrella term—that encompasses protons and neutrons, the building blocks of all the ordinary matter in the universe. Everything on the periodic table and pretty much anything that you think of as "stuff" is made of baryons.

    Since the late 1970s, cosmologists have suspected that dark matter—an as of yet unknown type of matter that must exist to explain the gravitational patterns in space – makes up most of the matter of the universe with the rest being baryonic matter, but they didn't know the exact ratios. In 1997, three scientists from the University of California, San Diego, used the ratio of heavy hydrogen nuclei—hydrogen with an extra neutron—to normal hydrogen to estimate that baryons should make up about 5% of the mass-energy budget of the universe.

    Yet while the ink was still drying on the publication, another trio of cosmologists raised a bright red flag. They reported that a direct measure of baryons in our present universe—determined through a census of stars, galaxies, and the gas within and around them—added up to only half of the predicted 5%.

    This sparked the missing baryon problem. Provided the law of nature held that matter can be neither created nor destroyed, there were two possible explanations: Either the matter didn't exist and the math was wrong, or, the matter was out there hiding somewhere.

    Unsuccessful search

    Astronomers across the globe took up the search and the first clue came a year later from theoretical cosmologists. Their computer simulations predicted that the majority of the missing matter was hiding in a low-density, million-degree hot plasma that permeated the universe. This was termed the "warm-hot intergalactic medium" and nicknamed "the WHIM." The WHIM, if it existed, would solve the missing baryon problem but at the time there was no way to confirm its existence.

    In 2001, another piece of evidence in favor of the WHIM emerged. A second team confirmed the initial prediction of baryons making up 5% of the universe by looking at tiny temperature fluctuations in the universe's cosmic microwave background – essentially the leftover radiation from the Big Bang. With two separate confirmations of this number, the math had to be right and the WHIM seemed to be the answer. Now cosmologists just had to find this invisible plasma.

    Over the past 20 years, we and many other teams of cosmologists and astronomers have brought nearly all of the Earth's greatest observatories to the hunt. There were some false alarms and tentative detections of warm-hot gas, but one of our teams eventually linked those to gas around galaxies. If the WHIM existed, it was too faint and diffuse to detect.

    An unexpected solution in fast radio bursts

    In 2007, an entirely unanticipated opportunity appeared. Duncan Lorimer, an astronomer at the University of West Virginia, reported the serendipitous discovery of a cosmological phenomenon known as a fast radio burst (FRB). FRBs are extremely brief, highly energetic pulses of radio emissions. Cosmologists and astronomers still don't know what creates them, but they seem to come from galaxies far, far away.

    As these bursts of radiation traverse the universe and pass through gasses and the theorized WHIM, they undergo something called dispersion.

    The initial mysterious cause of these FRBs lasts for less a thousandth of a second and all the wavelengths start out in a tight clump. If someone was lucky enough—or unlucky enough—to be near the spot where an FRB was produced, all the wavelengths would hit them simultaneously.

    But when radio waves pass through matter, they are briefly slowed down. The longer the wavelength, the more a radio wave "feels" the matter. Think of it like wind resistance. A bigger car feels more wind resistance than a smaller car.

    The "wind resistance" effect on radio waves is incredibly small, but space is big. By the time an FRB has traveled millions or billions of light-years to reach Earth, dispersion has slowed the longer wavelengths so much that they arrive nearly a second later than the shorter wavelengths.

    Therein lay the potential of FRBs to weigh the universe's baryons, an opportunity we recognized on the spot. By measuring the spread of different wavelengths within one FRB, we could calculate exactly how much matter—how many baryons—the radio waves passed through on their way to Earth.

    At this point we were so close, but there was one final piece of information we needed. To precisely measure the baryon density, we needed to know where in the sky an FRB came from. If we knew the source galaxy, we would know how far the radio waves traveled. With that and the amount of dispersion they experienced, perhaps we could calculate how much matter they passed through on the way to Earth?

    Unfortunately, the telescopes in 2007 weren't good enough to pinpoint exactly which galaxy—and therefore how far away—an FRB came from.

    We knew what information would allow us to solve the problem, now we just had to wait for technology to develop enough to give us that data.

    Technical innovation

    It was 11 years until we were able to place—or localize—our first FRB. In August 2018, our collaborative project called CRAFT began using the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope in the outback of Western Australia to look for FRBs. This new telescope can watch huge portions of the sky, about 60 times the size of a full Moon, and it can simultaneously detect FRBs and pinpoint where in the sky they come from.

    ASKAP captured its first FRB one month later. Once we knew the precise part of the sky the radio waves came from, we quickly used the Keck telescope in Hawaii to identify which galaxy the FRB came from and how far away that galaxy was. The first FRB we detected came from a galaxy named DES J214425.25–405400.81 that is about 4 billion light-years away from Earth, in case you were wondering.

    The technology and technique worked. We had measured the dispersion from an FRB and knew where it came from. But we needed to catch a few more of them in order to attain a statistically significant count of the baryons. So we waited and hoped space would send us some more FRBs.

    By mid-July 2019, we had detected five more events—enough to perform the first search for the missing matter. Using the dispersion measures of these six FRBs, we were able to make a rough calculation of how much matter the radio waves passed through before reaching earth.

    We were overcome by both amazement and reassurance the moment we saw the data fall right on the curve predicted by the 5% estimate. We had detected the missing baryons in full, solving this cosmological riddle and putting to rest two decades of searching.

    This result, however, is only the first step. We were able to estimate the amount of baryons, but with only six data points, we can't yet build a comprehensive map of the missing baryons. We have proof the WHIM likely exists and have confirmed how much there is, but we don't know exactly how it is distributed. It is believed to be part of a vast filamentary network of gas that connects galaxies termed "the cosmic web," but with about 100 fast radio bursts cosmologists could start building an accurate map of this web.

    More information: J.-P. Macquart et al. A census of baryons in the Universe from localized fast radio bursts, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2300-2
     
    • Informative Informative x 8
  2. Shadow Wolf

    Shadow Wolf Rival's Wife
    It's My Birthday!

    Joined:
    Apr 11, 2005
    Messages:
    65,354
    Ratings:
    +23,402
    Religion:
    God is in the Rain
    How dare you post this just before dinner! :mad:
    :p
     
    • Funny Funny x 4
  3. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon shunyadragon
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Mar 23, 2017
    Messages:
    15,572
    Ratings:
    +7,290
    Religion:
    Baha'i Faith
    Sleep on it! Take two aspirin and call me in the morning, after 12 noon.
     
    • Funny Funny x 3
  4. Daemon Sophic

    Daemon Sophic Avatar in flux

    Joined:
    Mar 13, 2009
    Messages:
    4,093
    Ratings:
    +2,260
    [​IMG]
    .

    .
    ..


    .


    .

    ... :confused:
    [​IMG]
     
    • Funny Funny x 3
    • Like Like x 1
  5. rational experiences

    rational experiences Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2020
    Messages:
    3,476
    Ratings:
    +132
    Religion:
    spiritualist
    If you were just God the stone planet, then you would say equals that volcanic type of form dense state as God history as compared to the Sun (radiation) that you study from Earth.

    For you are consciousness only due to gases burning....yet conscious also due to clear cold gases that allow you to see into out of space with your eyes.

    So you use telescopes that allow you to see into out of space...machines that own cooling of the minerals that once were volcanic like in its forming/alchemical advice.

    For if you do science, the strings of information involve the physical presence of the manifestation of the use of the machine also....what is relative to your observations that you ignore.

    God the stone mineral ownership is first owned by a water seal...which places that water seal with stone inside of a gas ALIGHT atmosphere first. Relative advice to ignoring relativity of advice.

    So God in the past is like the equals sign to all of your cosmological theories when the Sun was core imploding/exploding God crystalline mass fusion, into a hot dense stone expansion of gases and also intense radiation of mass...as equals to a theme/a story and a theory.

    God in a very ancient past...which we do not own living upon today.

    Unless of you course you want the God ground to open up into being a invented O God volcano instead of it just being a mountain volcano? You know inventing the cause....when O GOD in relativity was first the STONE.
     
  6. Heyo

    Heyo Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Aug 1, 2019
    Messages:
    3,584
    Ratings:
    +2,905
    Religion:
    none
    For those who like spoken word over written, here are some YouTube videos:

    These are about previous studies that are confirmed by the one in the OP:




    What's new about the study in the OP is that they confirmed previous measurements using a different technique.
     
    • Useful Useful x 1
  7. danieldemol

    danieldemol Well-Known Member
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Apr 24, 2011
    Messages:
    3,536
    Ratings:
    +2,794
    Religion:
    Baha'i inspired liberal
Loading...