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Imaging Quantum entanglement achieved

Discussion in 'Science and Technology' started by shunyadragon, Jul 13, 2019.

  1. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon Veteran Member
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    From: https://phys.org/news/2019-07-scientists-unveil-first-ever-image-quantum.html
    Scientists unveil the first-ever image of quantum entanglement
    by University of Glasgow

    Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2563" style="box-sizing: border-box;">
    [​IMG]
    Full-frame images recording the violation of a Bell inequality in four images. (A) The four coincidence counting images are presented, which correspond to images of the phase circle acquired with the four phase filters with different orientations, θ2 = {0° , 45° , 90° , 135°}, necessary to perform the Bell test. Scale bars, 1 mm (in the plane of the object). (B to E) The coincidence counts graphs as a function of the orientation angle θ1 of the phase step along the object are presented. As shown, these results are obtained by unfolding the ROIs represented as red rings and are extracted from the images presented in (A). The blue dots in the graphs are the coincidence counts per angular region within the ROIs, and the red curves correspond to the best fits of the experimental data by a cosine-squared function. (B) to (E) correspond to phase filter orientations θ2 of 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°, respectively. Credit: Science Advances (2019). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw2563
    For the first time ever, physicists have managed to take a photo of a strong form of quantum entanglement called Bell entanglement—capturing visual evidence of an elusive phenomenon which a baffled Albert Einstein once called 'spooky action at a distance'.

    Two particles which interact with each other—like two photons passing through a beam splitter, for example—can sometimes remain connected, instantaneously sharing their physical states no matter how great the distance which separates them. This connection is known as quantum entanglement, and it underpins the field of quantum mechanics.

    Einstein thought quantum mechanics was 'spooky' because of the instantaneousness of the apparent remote interaction between two entangled particles, which seemed incompatible with elements of his special theory of relativity.

    Later, Sir John Bell formalised this concept of nonlocal interaction describing a strong form of entanglement exhibiting this spookiness. Today, while Bell entanglement is being harnessed in practical applications like quantum computing and cryptography, it has never been captured in a single image.

    In a paper published today in the journal Science Advances, a team of physicists from the University of Glasgow describe how they have made Einstein's spookiness visible in an image for the first time.

    They devised a system which fires a stream of entangled photons from a quantum source of light at 'non-conventional objects' – displayed on liquid-crystals materials which change the phase of the photons as they pass through.

    They set up a super-sensitive camera capable of detecting single photons which would only take an image when it caught sight of both one photon and its entangled 'twin', creating a visible record of the entanglement of the photons.
     
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  2. Aupmanyav

    Aupmanyav Be your own guru

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    Very nice. The article has nice links to explore further. Thanks. So, the Cat! Dead or alive?
    https://phys.org/news/2015-05-spacetime-built-quantum-entanglement.html

    [​IMG]
    Recipe for a universe: Apply heat and stir.
    https://phys.org/news/2013-12-universe-emerge-remarkably-simple-scientists.html

    "Everybody knows of the transitions between liquid, solid and gaseous phases. But also time and space can undergo a phase transition, as the physicists Steven Hawking and Don Page pointed out in 1983. They calculated that empty space can turn into a black hole at a specific temperature."
     
    #2 Aupmanyav, Jul 13, 2019
    Last edited: Jul 13, 2019
  3. Bob the Unbeliever

    Bob the Unbeliever Well-Known Member

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    Very cool link you found!

    Quantum Entanglement has the potential for "faster than light" communication, if the authors of various science fiction stores are correct.

    I have read lengthy discussions as to A) why this could work, without violating Light Speed, and B) why it cannot.

    Nobody seems to know, at present.

    But it's cool beyond all measure.

    That old Chinese Curse: May You Live In Interesting Times.

    Interesting Times, indeed.
     
  4. shmogie

    shmogie Well-Known Member
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    Mechanical clocks or watches, whrn wound and put in proximity, in a short time, will ¨beat¨ together, that is their escapements will ¨tick¨ and ¨tock¨ in total harmony. In fact, I have an electric chiming clock clock, and a mechanical chiming clock separated by about 20 feet. I will set the mechanical clock a minute or two fast or slow, and within a couple of days they chime at the same time, and stay that way.

    I don´t know if this is the same principle, but it IS spooky.
     
  5. Polymath257

    Polymath257 Think & Care
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    Quantum mechanics does NOT violate special relativity. In fact, QED is *based* on special relativity. The correlations always travel slower than the speed of light. No communication using entanglement is possible because the 'messages' on both sides look completely random. It is only when the 'messages' are brought together that the correlation is revealed.
     
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  6. Polymath257

    Polymath257 Think & Care
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    Nope, not the same. The chimes from the electronic clock are driving the mechanical clock, providing just enough energy to synchronize the two. It doesn't take much when the two are *almost* in sync.
     
  7. David T

    David T Well-Known Member
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    "No communication using entanglement is possible because the 'messages' on both sides look completely random"

    Oh now that is very interesting.

    Poly if i sit on a beach near my home and clouds emerge from over the horizon the pattern will be random as i map them. The mapping wont reveal an organized pattern. But can i conclude realistically that random determines the patterns? Or does the observance just mean lack of information?

    Btw in regards to math realism math is real as a quality of nature, not real but highly accurate as it functions in the human brain quantifying about nature.
    So yes math is a part of nature as well. But math cant quantify itself therefore the actions to quantify are subjective to quality of nature. Nature is the big dog, math its tiny puppy as it functions in a tiny little brain on a tiny little planet.

    In naive set theory cantor had the universial set. That cant be quantified its always quality of. So the term set is incorrect as stated by cantor.

    Therefore infinity can be a quantified as it is in cantors theory. but its also more importantly a quality of nature. Thus cantor discovered the nature of math as a quality of nature and infinity as a quantifiable process in the human brain in nature at the same time.
    Qualities are primary, quantification secondary or the human brain . Like writing.
     
  8. shmogie

    shmogie Well-Known Member
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    What about the mechanical watches ? Since I am a watch collector, and do very minor watch work as a hobby, I have observed the synchronized beat a number of times.
     
  9. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon Veteran Member
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    It is not the same principle. The above deals with the macro world of classical physics, this research deals with the behavior of particles at the Quantum level of Quantum Mechanics.

    It is an important achievement in explaining the observed Quantum entanglement in particle behavior.
     
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  10. ChristineM

    ChristineM "Be strong" I whispered to my coffee.
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    I read that this morning, interesting.
     
  11. Polymath257

    Polymath257 Think & Care
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    Same basic principle. The mechanical vibrations, transmitted through sound (air or any other material) provide a driving force that tends to put them into sync. Not much actual force is required when the watches/clocks are close to being in sync already.

    For the electrical watch, the chimes provide the driving force for the other clocks.
     
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  12. Bob the Unbeliever

    Bob the Unbeliever Well-Known Member

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    Thanks! Who knew that Science Fiction authors got actual physics wrong? :)
     
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  13. Polymath257

    Polymath257 Think & Care
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    To be fair to these *fiction* authors, there is a LOT of very bad popular writing about quantum mechanics. There is a LOT that is, essentially, mysticism wrapped in the language of QM, but it is clear that no *actual* QM is understood or used.

    And, again to be fair, the pure randomness of QM, as opposed to simple ignorance of causes, goes against most people's intuitions. And that this randomness is correlated across long distances can make people think of messaging. But it simply doesn't work.
     
  14. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon Veteran Member
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    Simple! If the cat's dead the cat's dead! Tha . . .tha . . . that's all folks!
     
    #14 shunyadragon, Jul 14, 2019
    Last edited: Jul 14, 2019
  15. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon Veteran Member
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    I consider QM in science fiction 'fun,' and some scifi writers do better than others.

    QM being purely random is most likely not a correct characterization of the behavior. It is true the event outcomes in QM behavior are observed from the human perspective as random, but over all QM in the long term has predictable patterns of non-random behavior.

    This research does take some of the mystery and unknowns out of Quantum entanglement, and may be a step in understanding other behavior at the planck level of QM.
     
  16. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon Veteran Member
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    The problem with this line of posts concerning watches and clocks is that it is somewhat OFF TOPIC and dealing with Classic Physics behavior in the macro world..
     
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  17. Polymath257

    Polymath257 Think & Care
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    QM is very good at predicting the probability distributions and correlations. But the specific events are random subject to said distributions.

    And, yes, in those distributions are some 'non-random' aspects, like the specific energy levels allowed, etc. But *which* energy level actually shows up is random.

    And I agree, this is a very nice experimental result. I don't think anyone was still doubting the violation of Bell's inequalities, but this closes the lid on the cat, so to speak.
     
  18. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon Veteran Member
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    Longer explanation of what I previously stated.
     
  19. shunyadragon

    shunyadragon Veteran Member
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    Interesting further implication of Quantum entanglement and the recent research:

    From: https://phys.org/news/2019-07-scientists-unveil-first-ever-image-quantum.html
    How spacetime is built by quantum entanglement
    by University of Tokyo

    [​IMG]
    The mathematical formula derived by Ooguri and his collaborators relates local data in the extra dimensions of the gravitational theory, depicted by the red point, are expressed in terms of quantum entanglements, depicted by the blue domes. Credit: (c) 2015 Jennifer Lin et al.
    A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. The paper announcing the discovery by Hirosi Ooguri, a Principal Investigator at the University of Tokyo's Kavli IPMU, with Caltech mathematician Matilde Marcolli and graduate students Jennifer Lin and Bogdan Stoica, will be published in Physical Review Letters as an Editors' Suggestion "for the potential interest in the results presented and on the success of the paper in communicating its message, in particular to readers from other fields."

    Physicists and mathematicians have long sought a Theory of Everything (ToE) that unifies general relativity and quantum mechanics. General relativity explains gravity and large-scale phenomena such as the dynamics of stars and galaxies in the universe, while quantum mechanics explains microscopic phenomena from the subatomic to molecular scales.

    The holographic principle is widely regarded as an essential feature of a successful Theory of Everything. The holographic principle states that gravity in a three-dimensional volume can be described by quantum mechanics on a two-dimensional surface surrounding the volume. In particular, the three dimensions of the volume should emerge from the two dimensions of the surface. However, understanding the precise mechanics for the emergence of the volume from the surface has been elusive.

    Now, Ooguri and his collaborators have found that quantum entanglement is the key to solving this question. Using a quantum theory (that does not include gravity), they showed how to compute energy density, which is a source of gravitational interactions in three dimensions, using quantum entanglement data on the surface. This is analogous to diagnosing conditions inside of your body by looking at X-ray images on two-dimensional sheets. This allowed them to interpret universal properties of quantum entanglement as conditions on the energy density that should be satisfied by any consistent quantum theory of gravity, without actually explicitly including gravity in the theory. The importance of quantum entanglement has been suggested before, but its precise role in emergence of spacetime was not clear until the new paper by Ooguri and collaborators.

    [​IMG]
    An illustration of the concept of the holography. Credit: Hirosi Ooguri
    Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon whereby quantum states such as spin or polarization of particles at different locations cannot be described independently. Measuring (and hence acting on) one particle must also act on the other, something that Einstein called "spooky action at distance." The work of Ooguri and collaborators shows that this quantum entanglement generates the extra dimensions of the gravitational theory.

    "It was known that quantum entanglement is related to deep issues in the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, such as the black hole information paradox and the firewall paradox," says Hirosi Ooguri. "Our paper sheds new light on the relation between quantum entanglement and the microscopic structure of spacetime by explicit calculations. The interface between quantum gravity and information science is becoming increasingly important for both fields. I myself am collaborating with information scientists to pursue this line of research further."
     
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  20. siti

    siti Well-Known Member

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    But presumably if they had achieved it in the future they'd have been sure to let us know already - wouldn't they?
     
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