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For Certainty Faculty of Reason has 3 Allies, including Revelation - Perfect Approach of Holy Quran.


Peace be upon you.
Peace be on you.
Allah has graciously bestowed many faculties to human being. Each of these has its sphere of working. One of these faculties is Faculty of Reason (Aqal). It is a lamp whose light attarcts human to truth and righteousness. It saves from doubts and baseless thoughts.

However, the Faculty of Reason has limitation - At maximum, it can declare the need of existence of something BUT it can not declare that a certain thing definitely exists.

Allah has appointed appropriate Allies for Faculty of Reason - The allies aid Faculty of Reason from occasion to occasion so that human can obtain certainty in various issues and thus obtain peace:

i) True Observation or Experience - In dealing with issues related to perceptible objects that can be seen, heard, smelled or touched, the ally that helps it to reach the stage of certainity is True Observation which is the Experience.

ii)Historical Books, Writings, Letters and Correspondences - In dealing with matters that have happened or happen in various ages and places, the ally of Faculty of Reason to reach the stage of certainty is in the form of Historical Books, Writings, Letters and Correspondences.

iii)Divine Revelation - In dealing with issues related to Beyond-Physical-Senses, which we cannot see with eyes, hear with our ears, touch with our hands, or find through historical record of world, then the ally which come to the aid of Faculty of Unserstanding is Divine Revelation (Ilham, Wahi).

Allah’s balanced approach- Allah has made allies for Faculty of Reason for physical matters. How could He have forsaken spiritual matters which are essential for attaining eternal salvation, and ignorance of which could lead one to hell. It is unfair to think that Allah has limited the knowledge of the Hereafter to notions based on mere conjecture and has not provided any means to verify it, so as to bring certainty for salvation suggested by Faculty of Reason are indeed true and not merely hypothetical. Having established that in theological matters absolute certainty is only to be attained through revelation, and that human requires perfect certainty for salvation and preservation of his faith, it becomes obvious that he stands in dire need of divine revelation.

How Holy Quran’s revelation brought certainty of highest order - All divine revelations were meant to bestow certainty on human. Revelations prior to Holy Quran were narratives which bore witness to events. That is why they became corrupt in the end and selfish and egotistical people entirely changed their meanings.
The Holy Quran, however, took upon itself to substantiate its teachings with rational proofs and thus saved human from countless hazards. Firstly, it acted as true messenger, imparting knowledge of the divine realm; secondly, it substantiated its teachings with the aid of Reason. Anyone who studies the Holy Quran will find that, from beginning to end, it provides two kinds of testimonies – the testimony of Reason and the testimony of Revelation. In the Holy Quran these two are like two great streams running in parallel and influencing each other continuously. The stream of Reason shows that something ‘should be’ and the stream of testimony of Revelation continuously satisfy the hearts like a righteous informer that, ‘In fact it is'. And style of Holy Quran provides ease to seeker because the reader of Holy Quran continuously learn the best rational arguments whom no book of philosophy can match. And on the other hand, the seeker gets the testimony of events through revelation and reaches to highest stage of certainty. The seeker get that free which others can not find in a lifetime of effort and deliberation. Thus, it is proved that sure, perfect and easy way to recognize the true principle and all those beliefs, having sure knowledge of which, our salvation depends, is only in the Holy Quran.

Reference: Based on Marginal note # 4 of ‘Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya’ by Promised Holy Messiah and Mahdi (peace be on him) - the ardent devotee of Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be on him).
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Ahmadi Muslim
This is a beautiful explanation. I have experienced many times that the Promised Messiah (as) responses are so strong, so intuitive, yet so obvious that they are impossible to deny for a seeker of truth.

He ensures that our nature that Allah (swt) has created never conflicts with the teachings of Allah (swt). As it would be senseless to believe the faculty of reason can get one nowhere when Allah (swt) has granted it to us.

Many Philosophers have failed to explain the philosophy of reason and how far it it can get us to certainty. Alhamdollilah the Islamic Philosophy is beautiful.