1. Welcome to Religious Forums, a friendly forum to discuss all religions in a friendly surrounding.

    Your voice is missing! You will need to register to get access to the following site features:
    • Reply to discussions and create your own threads.
    • Our modern chat room. No add-ons or extensions required, just login and start chatting!
    • Access to private conversations with other members.

    We hope to see you as a part of our community soon!

Fascism -- the fourteen elements common to all of them

Discussion in 'Political Debates' started by Evangelicalhumanist, Jan 21, 2021.

  1. Evangelicalhumanist

    Evangelicalhumanist "Truth" isn't a thing...
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Aug 29, 2013
    Messages:
    8,701
    Ratings:
    +9,114
    Religion:
    None, a humanist who doesn't even worship humans
    Political scientist Dr. Lawrence Britt recently wrote an article about fascism ("Fascism Anyone?," Free Inquiry, Spring 2003, page 20). Studying the fascist regimes of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia), and Pinochet (Chile), Dr. Britt found they all had 14 elements in common. He calls these the identifying characteristics of fascism. The excerpt is in accordance with the magazine's policy.

    The 14 characteristics are:

    1. Powerful and Continuing Nationalism
    Fascist regimes tend to make constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, and other paraphernalia. Flags are seen everywhere, as are flag symbols on clothing and in public displays.

    2. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights
    Because of fear of enemies and the need for security, the people in fascist regimes are persuaded that human rights can be ignored in certain cases because of "need." The people tend to look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, assassinations, long incarcerations of prisoners, etc.

    3. Identification of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause
    The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; socialists, terrorists, etc.

    4. Supremacy of the Military
    Even when there are widespread domestic problems, the military is given a disproportionate amount of government funding, and the domestic agenda is neglected. Soldiers and military service are glamorized.

    5. Rampant Sexism
    The governments of fascist nations tend to be almost exclusively male-dominated. Under fascist regimes, traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Opposition to abortion is high, as is homophobia and anti-gay legislation and national policy.

    6. Controlled Mass Media
    Sometimes to media is directly controlled by the government, but in other cases, the media is indirectly controlled by government regulation, or sympathetic media spokespeople and executives. Censorship, especially in war time, is very common.

    7. Obsession with National Security
    Fear is used as a motivational tool by the government over the masses.

    8. Religion and Government are Intertwined
    Governments in fascist nations tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. Religious rhetoric and terminology is common from government leaders, even when the major tenets of the religion are diametrically opposed to the government's policies or actions.

    9. Corporate Power is Protected
    The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist nation often are the ones who put the government leaders into power, creating a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite.

    10. Labor Power is Suppressed
    Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are either eliminated entirely, or are severely suppressed .

    11. Disdain for Intellectuals and the Arts
    Fascist nations tend to promote and tolerate open hostility to higher education, and academia. It is not uncommon for professors and other academics to be censored or even arrested. Free expression in the arts is openly attacked, and governments often refuse to fund the arts.

    12. Obsession with Crime and Punishment
    Under fascist regimes, the police are given almost limitless power to enforce laws. The people are often willing to overlook police abuses and even forego civil liberties in the name of patriotism. There is often a national police force with virtually unlimited power in fascist nations.

    13. Rampant Cronyism and Corruption
    Fascist regimes almost always are governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each other to government positions and use governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. It is not uncommon in fascist regimes for national resources and even treasures to be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.

    14. Fraudulent Elections
    Sometimes elections in fascist nations are a complete sham. Other times elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates, use of legislation to control voting numbers or political district boundaries, and manipulation of the media. Fascist nations also typically use their judiciaries to manipulate or control elections.

    Copyright © 2003 Free Inquiry magazine
    Reprinted for Fair Use Only.

    This article was based upon the article "The Hallmarks of Fascist Regime" by Skip Stone, at www.hippy.com/php/article-226.html.
     
    • Winner Winner x 7
    • Informative Informative x 5
    • Like Like x 1
  2. Revoltingest

    Revoltingest I have the kavorka
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Mar 25, 2010
    Messages:
    181,302
    Ratings:
    +60,485
    Religion:
    Atheist
    Would you consider the PRC or USSR to have been fascist?
     
  3. Sunstone

    Sunstone De Diablo Del Fora
    Staff Member Premium Member

    Joined:
    Jul 2, 2004
    Messages:
    76,144
    Ratings:
    +37,788
    Religion:
    Non-Theistic Mysticism
    About point 11, Disdain for Intellectuals, etc. It's been a thorn to me for years how so many intellectuals, artists, etc are drawn either directly to authoritarianism or to something very likely to lead to authoritarianism. It makes no difference in the larger sense whether it's authoritarianism of the right or of the left. Despite being an intellectual of sorts myself, a poet of lesser sorts, and a profoundly embarrassed painter, it's annoying and I just don't get it. Some kind of Freudian Death Wish? Is that actually a thing?
     
  4. Sunstone

    Sunstone De Diablo Del Fora
    Staff Member Premium Member

    Joined:
    Jul 2, 2004
    Messages:
    76,144
    Ratings:
    +37,788
    Religion:
    Non-Theistic Mysticism
    On #5, Rampant Sexism. Anyone notice how routinely issues concerning human sexuality and stuff associated with it are used by politicians as political wedges to sort people into opposing groups?

    Might not happen so easily if enough of us refrained from getting all busybody about people's collections of Balinese fishnet donkey porn sex lives and reproductive decisions.
     
  5. sun rise

    sun rise "This is the Hour of God"
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Apr 28, 2014
    Messages:
    55,582
    Ratings:
    +25,086
    Religion:
    Love
     
    • Like Like x 3
    • Winner Winner x 1
  6. beenherebeforeagain

    beenherebeforeagain Rogue Animist
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Aug 11, 2011
    Messages:
    20,684
    Ratings:
    +7,026
    Religion:
    Modern Animist
    with the exception of 8, 9 and 10, it also describes historical socialist/communist dictatorships...
     
    • Like Like x 1
  7. Evangelicalhumanist

    Evangelicalhumanist "Truth" isn't a thing...
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Aug 29, 2013
    Messages:
    8,701
    Ratings:
    +9,114
    Religion:
    None, a humanist who doesn't even worship humans
    As usual, an interesting -- and completely provacative -- question! Is that your special gift, or are you sticking with machines and haggis? :rolleyes:

    Fascism is usually defined as is a form of far-right, authoritarion ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy. I would go further and suggest that it is also, generally, capitalist and anti-labour. These are related because suppression of the working class holds wages low, which facilitates the faster growth of profit.

    And since (possibly until more recently) the PRC or USSR have not typically been devoted to profit, nor anti-labour, I would classify them differently than fascism.

    For sure, they are authoritarian, ultranationalist, dictatorial, regimented, etc. However, since I think that communism is about a theory of economic equality and advocates for a classless society, fascism is top-down with pretty rigid class roles.
     
    • Like Like x 1
    • Winner Winner x 1
  8. Evangelicalhumanist

    Evangelicalhumanist "Truth" isn't a thing...
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Aug 29, 2013
    Messages:
    8,701
    Ratings:
    +9,114
    Religion:
    None, a humanist who doesn't even worship humans
    I'm not even interested in people's sex lives unless they want to do it with me. And then I need two weeks notice and supply of nutritional supplements and racy magazines.
     
    • Funny Funny x 3
  9. Brickjectivity

    Brickjectivity Veteran Member
    Staff Member Premium Member

    Joined:
    Dec 8, 2012
    Messages:
    30,549
    Ratings:
    +11,434
    Religion:
    liber-scripta grim Christian
    State of the union:
    #1 Nationalism since 1900 or before, but it got worse after 2 world wars.
    #2 Disdain for rights comes and goes, but its a continual problem. We set high goals for ourselves.
    #3 Scapegoating heavily since WWII, but this is slowly subsiding...leveling out though not to zero.
    #4 Military supremacy is not such an issue, though police supremacy comes and goes. Other groups have held this position like firefighters. We also have a new nobility problem and a longstanding problem of inequality in the courts and jails where money is a factor.
    #5 Sexism has decreased heavily since the turn of the century. We've beaten this back quite a bit, and its still decreasing.
    #6 Controlled mass media... Mainly its competing corporations that do this.
    #7 Obsession with national security. Worse and worse. This is frightening.
    #8 Religions & government aren't intertwined, but corrupt politicians do moonlight as holy people. Its under control.
    #9 Corporate power is sometimes held to task. It depends on the administration and composition of legislators. Currently we need to work on this. Its looking scary.
    #10 Labor. Many states are at-will, making many unions ineffective. Raising minimum wages seems ineffective. Generally everything is ineffective except for trust busting in my opinion. We need some more trust busting. Unions also have a corruption problem, and we don't have a solution for that yet. I suppose more unions and trust busting are both a good idea, but we also need some kind of oversight on unions.
    #11 Disdain for intellectuals is a result of our extremely, heinously corrupt state college systems. Close all state universities for ten years. Run them for 5 years at a time then rest them for 10. This will be much more effective. I can't even believe how wasteful and manipulative the college boards are and what they get away with, with their angelic smiles and dagger like hidden claws and pleading for more money. And they know they are fooling people and look down upon the population for it. Fire them all. If you thought Trump University was a travesty, then fire them all; because they all are Trump Universities.
    #12 Obsession with crime. Guilty. This extensive problem is often overlooked and seems not to improve but slowly. I fear to be charged with anything. Once you are charged you're in for a lot of trouble even if you're not-guilty.
    #13 Cronyism. Permanent political parties. Yes. Huge bureaucracies with extensive benefits and corrupt unions. Still...some cronyism cannot be avoided, and governors and the US president have administrations which rely upon cronyism. Its a balance.
    #14 Fraudulent elections. We could do better, but we're not terrible. Each state is responsible for its own election. The federal government can't touch it, so it can't really be fraudulent at least not nationwide.
     
    • Informative Informative x 1
  10. Wu Wei

    Wu Wei ursus senum severiorum and ex-Bisy Backson

    Joined:
    Dec 8, 2012
    Messages:
    41,222
    Ratings:
    +8,810
    I admit this is a weird pet peeve but Hitler was a Nazi, not a Fascist, Nazism is more a subset of Fascism

    Big difference is Fascism is centered on the state/nation. Nazism has a racial component

    Mussolini was a Fascist and all Italy and Italians were best
    Hitler was a Nazi and all Blue Eyes Blond Germans were best..Germany and Germans were good...but a specific physically fit, German racial type was best.
     
    • Informative Informative x 1
  11. Valjean

    Valjean Veteran Member
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Nov 25, 2004
    Messages:
    25,897
    Ratings:
    +12,661
    Religion:
    Vedanta (reform)
    Auth
    RWA autocracies.
     
  12. Valjean

    Valjean Veteran Member
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Nov 25, 2004
    Messages:
    25,897
    Ratings:
    +12,661
    Religion:
    Vedanta (reform)
    Aren't the artists and intellectuals always the first to be rounded up -- especially if they're (insert scapegoated minority)?
     
    • Like Like x 2
  13. Revoltingest

    Revoltingest I have the kavorka
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Mar 25, 2010
    Messages:
    181,302
    Ratings:
    +60,485
    Religion:
    Atheist
    So by definition, commies cannot be "fascist",
    despite their regimes being fascist...according
    to common dictionary definitions...
    Definition of fascism | Dictionary.com
    Definition of FASCISM
    I sense convenience.
     
    #13 Revoltingest, Jan 21, 2021
    Last edited: Jan 21, 2021
    • Winner Winner x 1
  14. Valjean

    Valjean Veteran Member
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Nov 25, 2004
    Messages:
    25,897
    Ratings:
    +12,661
    Religion:
    Vedanta (reform)
    Tourists here in the Home of the Brave are always impressed by the proliferation of flags, lapel pins, and other symbols of nationalism; by the politicized sports, and the militarized police.
     
    • Informative Informative x 1
  15. Revoltingest

    Revoltingest I have the kavorka
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Mar 25, 2010
    Messages:
    181,302
    Ratings:
    +60,485
    Religion:
    Atheist
    "RWA"?
     
  16. Valjean

    Valjean Veteran Member
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Nov 25, 2004
    Messages:
    25,897
    Ratings:
    +12,661
    Religion:
    Vedanta (reform)
  17. Revoltingest

    Revoltingest I have the kavorka
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Mar 25, 2010
    Messages:
    181,302
    Ratings:
    +60,485
    Religion:
    Atheist
    Rather than my reading thru that in order to glean
    the point you're making, could you quote the relevant
    text, or elucidate it in your own words.
    (I just had some Grand Marnier, & it's lazied me up some.)

    BTW, I did note some vagueness in the term in your link....
    In the academic use of the term right-wing authoritarianism, the label right-wing does not automatically match the popular use of the label, with some academics allowing for either left-wing or right-wing politics to motivate people to submit.[2]
     
  18. Valjean

    Valjean Veteran Member
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Nov 25, 2004
    Messages:
    25,897
    Ratings:
    +12,661
    Religion:
    Vedanta (reform)
    ...high degree of willingness to submit to authorities they perceive as established and legitimate, who adhere to societal conventions and norms and who are hostile and punitive in their attitudes towards people who do not adhere to them. They value uniformity and are in favour of using group authority, including coercion, to achieve it.
    1. Authoritarian submission — a high degree of submissiveness to the authorities who are perceived to be established and legitimate in the society in which one lives.
    2. Authoritarian aggression — a general aggressiveness directed against deviants, outgroups and other people that are perceived to be targets according to established authorities.
    3. Conventionalism — a high degree of adherence to the traditions and social norms that are perceived to be endorsed by society and its established authorities and a belief that others in one's society should also be required to adhere to these norms.
     
    • Informative Informative x 1
  19. Revoltingest

    Revoltingest I have the kavorka
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Mar 25, 2010
    Messages:
    181,302
    Ratings:
    +60,485
    Religion:
    Atheist
    That sounds like it would apply to both left & right wings.
    Those labels don't seem very rigorous.
    And the OP's list seems designed to exclude some fascist regimes.
     
  20. Valjean

    Valjean Veteran Member
    Premium Member

    Joined:
    Nov 25, 2004
    Messages:
    25,897
    Ratings:
    +12,661
    Religion:
    Vedanta (reform)
    "The phrase right-wing in right-wing authoritarianism does not necessarily refer to someone's specific political beliefs, but to his general preference vis-à-vis social equality and hierarchy."
     
    #20 Valjean, Jan 21, 2021
    Last edited: Jan 22, 2021
Loading...