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Consciousness, Entropy, Water, and Hydrogen Bonding

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
I discussed consciousness and entropy in a previous discussion that can be found below. I thought I would use that as the discussion of consciousness and entropy and then jump to the connection of consciousness and entropy to water.

Does any supernatural god exist?

If you look at consciousness it is not structured the same way as our memory. Consciousness is far more fluid. If you had amnesia, and could not remember anything, you can still be conscious. You may have to reinvent yourself by making new memory from scratch so you have long term memory and not just sensory induced short term memory. As we get older we forget details, but don't go unconscious, unless we let pride get in the way.

Computers store lots of structural memory, but they are not conscious. Consciousness and structural memory are connected, but they are also independent. This allows us to willfully alter memory. The more fluid and even the fountain analogy nature of consciousness, brings us back to the discussion of cationic pumping and exchange by neurons, entropy, consciousness but now as a function of the water; the fluid phase of consciousness.

In the liquid form, water forms hydrogen bonds with other water, while sodium and potassium ions in water, are able to tweak the extended hydrogen bonding matrix of water. This extends the hydrogen bonding range of the water; amplifies the water's range. Water is why nature selected these two cations.

Sodium ions are, kosmotropic. They create more order in water, than pure water creates for itself. This has to do with the small Na+ ion, electron withdrawing from the oxygen of water, more than a hydrogen bond, thereby amplify all the hydrogen bonding, via oxygen, to compensate. This extends the size of water structures. This extra order in water, created by sodium ions, by collecting sodium ions outside the neuron, makes the water outside the neuron increase its entropic potential; too ordered. Charging up the outside water, is a large part of the reason it takes so much energy expenditure; 90% of the neuron energy budget. Water is resisting this and the neuron has to fight this resistance and does so with lots of extra energy.

Potassium ions in water do the opposite and are called chaotic. They bind weaker to water, than pure water, can hydrogen bond with itself. The potassium ions creates more disorder in water, than water will create with itself, if potassium ions were not there. Potassium is larger than sodium and its positive charge is more distant and shielded, so it cannot compete as well with the stronger hydrogen bonds of water, but it can disrupt them. This extra chaos or entropy within the water, inside the neuron, is useful for softening organic structures; water and oil effect is not quite as strict. This makes synthesis easier on a global scale. This also takes a lot of energy to sustain.

With inside and outside the neuron having different entropic water potentials, we have created an entropic potential, in the water, across the neuron membrane. One effect is the hydrated potassium ions, which decrease the order in water, can become smaller; less extended water structure. Sodium is the opposite, with larger water structuring, due to the extra order it creates in the water. The net effect is potassium ions can and will leak outside to partially lower the ionic and entropic gradients. This decreases the inside positive charge and increases the outside positive charge; membrane potential. The membrane potential is only a small fraction of the stored water and ionic entropic potential; step down. There is still plenty of extra entropic potential in the water, both inside and outside.

With extra cations outside: mostly sodium and some potassium, the entropic potential can lower further, through osmosis. This helps to create the neuron branches out of the neuron body; toward the zone of extra cations. This entropic gradient is also used to power the transport protein. These are happening while we are still rolling the big rock up the hill and before the neuron fires, for the main discharge of potential.

When neuron fire and the two cations, spontaneously exchange to lower the potential; 2nd law, to form a more uniform solution of higher entropy, the equilibrium tide changes for the organics. The water induced structures outside the neurons, now see potassium, and thereby loosen; add complexity. The inside structures see the sodium and they pucker up into another equilibrium shape; structural memory. This forms a cyclic correspondence between inside and outside; DNA and neuron branches.
 

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
The last thing needed is hydrogen bonding. I summarized the basics in another post by discussing DNA and water; This is linked below;

Is DNA a sign of Intelligent design?

Hydrogen bonds form when hydrogen covalently bonds to highly electronegative atoms. In terms of life, this is primarily connected to oxygen and nitrogen. In the case of water, the highly electronegative oxygen can accommodate more electrons than has protons in its nucleus to form hydroxide-1 and oxide-2. The reason this charge imbalance is stable, is the 2p orbitals will become full; octet, and this allow magnetic addition in 3-D, that is so strong it can overcome the electrostatic repulsion; see link above.

Hydrogen bonding allow the EM force to be tweaked into its components aspects of electrostatic and magnetics forces. This is reflected in the hydrogen bonding showing both polar; electrostatic and covalent character; magnetic. The oxygen prefers the magnetic addition and its octet, while hydrogen prefers the polar, so hydrogen bonding is like a battle of two wills.

The usefulness of this, is that hydrogen bonds can act like binary switches, that can flip between settings, all without the hydrogen bond having to break. All that changes are the polar and magnetic fields and the type of bonding orbitals they represent. These two switch settings are separated by a small activation energy hill to help keep them distinct. Each setting, by reflection of either being more electrostatic or more magnetic ratio, can be used for different things with nothing appearing to change if we flip the switch. However, each setting has differences in entropy, enthalpy and volume. This is memory with muscle. It can not only move binary information, but can also use different free energy and pressure; man handle. Water and hydrogen bonding has the effect of mind for over matter, since its binary system is more than just information but information with muscle.

Say we start with a neuron at the top of the energy hill. We have all this entropic potential; ions, water, etc., The water inside and outside is set to different binary settings, while still forming hydrogen bonds. These settings contain differences in entropy and enthalpy with the polar smaller in size or bond length.

We now fire the neuron, and the potentials starts to lower, the exchange of cations flips the switches of the water. The organic environment changes as entropy and enthalpy increases or decreases. The water matrix allows for global communication and activity that is faster than the ionic currents. The ionic is more like weight to keep the switches, to one side, against the resistance of the water. The information in water is not dependent on the ions.

Studies were done where membranes were removed from cells so there was no ion pumping. What they found was potassium would still accumulate inside the naked cells instead of sodium. This is assumed, by some, to imply ion pumping is less needed today. It is now more of a fail safe. To me, this reflects the impact of eons of years of ionic pumping, causing the charges water to select these proteins, since they were the ones that could compensate for potassium's impact on the water. Without active ion pumping, the protein will now move the water the other way, and potassium is now attracted into cell to help shift the water back. Ion pumping and water helped to drive evolution by amplifying the entropy in water; helped the push the organics into more complex order.

Neuron do the ionic pumping two step to an exaggerated way; ion pumping and exchange is premium; 90% energy budget. I would guess this really pushing for evolutionary changes in the brain and is connected to consciousness. Consciousness becomes more aware and more water based or fluid; ventricles and cerebral spinal fluid.

Conceptually, if consciousness was a fluid zone of high entropy, that zone would be counter to the neurons push up the energy hill. This would be most effective on the outside of the neurons, since it would counter the entropy lowering impact of the sodium. Since the impact of the ionic is also connected to the water, and the water is connected to the muscle and energy of the binary switches, conceptually, this fluid zone could be done through just the water, where high entropy or polar hydrogen switches are flipped, not by potassium, but by signals in the water. You would get the same effect but created by adding waves instead of the weight of potassium.
 

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
I learned an interesting new thing, doing some internet refresher research for the next installment; fluid consciousness.

The cerebellum is a small part of the brain in the back/below the cerebral matter attached to the brain stem. It occupies about 10% of the brain's volume but has 50% of the all neurons. The cerebellum is primarily responsible for muscle control, including balance, movement and timing. It also plays a role in other cognitive functions such as language processing and memory.



brain_lobes8359923580908118448.png


The new fun fact that I learned, was that a study was done that compared the cerebella between humans and primates, to see how it changed in terms of time and evolution. The interesting find was the human cerebellum, although small ; see above, has about 80% of the surface of the human cerebrum. The Macaque monkey's cerebellum; primate, was only about 30% of the surface area of its cerebrum. The human cerebellum appears to have evolved much faster than our primates ancestors. This higher ratio makes humans distinct.

The cerebellum was my first guess as the metrix for our secondary center of consciousness or our ego consciousness. The thalamus, in the core of the brain, is the mostly likely place for the original center of consciousness; inner self, that all animal have. The thalamus is the most wired part of the brain; zone of highest complexity. The cerebellum is way up there, maybe number 2.

The stabilization of the human ego; secondary, and the subsequent rise of civilization, created lots of new ways for the human animal to use the human body, that went way beyond natural needs of other primates. We use it for working thousands of different jobs, making art, for dance, sports, war, performance art, hand/eye skills like shooting pool or shooting baskets, singing, and even talking, etc.

With the cerebellum being the place where motor function is fine tuned and perfected it appear our will and choices have being creating an evolutionary potential in this location. The cerebellum study may have proved will and choice and mind over matter. It structure also offer an organic place that can explain fluid or the water aspect of consciousness.

The alternative to will and choice and mind over matter, advancing the cerebellum; practice, is the cerebellum is doing this on its own, pulling humans along to the future, down a different path than the primates. Either way, it is not random but part of a 2nd law plan; higher complexity.

Our Large “Little Brain” Makes Us Human – Department of Psychology

Lastly, the structure of the neurons of the cerebellum are interesting and were just what the doctor ordered for my needs. I am a lucky researcher.

Cerebellum (Section 3, Chapter 5) Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the Neurosciences | Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy - The University of Texas Medical School at Houston

Purkinje cells. The Purkinje cell is one of the most striking cell types in the mammalian brain. Its apical dendrites form a large fan of finely branched processes (Figure 5.7). Remarkably, this dendritic tree is almost two-dimensional; looked at from the side, the dendritic tree is flat (click PLAY on Figure 5.7). Moreover, all Purkinje cells are oriented in parallel.
The link above has a graphic that makes this easy to visualize, but I could not copy and paste the graphics but just the text.The gist of it is Purkinje cells all stay in parallel 2-D planes (x,y) and the connectivity neurons are perpendicular (z-axis). I have my right hand rule connected to the magnetic side of the EM force and the hydrogen bonding switch. Nature recycling nature.

The small size of the cerebellum with so many neurons compared to the larger size of the cerebral, with fewer neurons, was also part of the answer. The larger size of cerebral neurons is connected to the sheathing of fatty protein that covers the axons. This sheathing is like the rubber coating on an electrical wire. It insulates to prevent the signals from interfering with each other; cleaner signal. The cerebellum is not big on insulation and appears to designed for the interference, because the goal is the integrating nature of the water. The 3-D grid set up with the Purkinje cells makes this easier to merge with the water. Also the lack of sheathing means less water and oil effect and surface tension. Consciousness needs to be at higher entropy so it can float about and trigger low entropy neurons.
 

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
What I would like to discuss is what has been called the life force. There appears to be a fifth force of nature, used mostly by life, that is connected to entropy. I call it the entropic force. The most common use for this fifth force is osmosis. Osmosis is a good example of water's information matrix with muscle, applying group force (pressure) at the macro level.

Osmosis is a colligative property. Colligative properties are those properties of solutions; liquid state, that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent particles in a solution, but not on the nature of the chemical species present.

The term nature of the chemical species, are things that differentiate dissolved things, like positive or negative charge, whether it is reduced or oxidized, neutral, its mass, etc. Since the EM distinctions and mass/gravity differences do not matter, only the solute count, the only two forces left to explain this expression of force are the strong and weak nuclear forces. These can also be factored out. What is left is a potential fifth force connected to the free energy within entropy. This force appears limited to the liquid state and also needs the semipermeable membranes found in life; life force.

Liquid state: Gases can only exert pressure but not tension. A gas applies pressure against the walls of a container. It does not pull the walls in, rather we lower the pressure. A solid can display both pressure and tension; push and pull, but they cannot do so and form a steady state. If we push and pull, at the same time, it will move, rotate, stretch and compress. Liquids can display pressure and tension, at the same time and reach steady state. A glass of water, open the atmosphere, will feel the atmospheric pressure and display surface tension and can reach steady state. This oddity allows liquid water to have an extra liquid state wild card.

In terms of an experiment to demonstrate the entropic force, we can use an osmotic device as seen below:

Osmotic-Pressure.jpg


The picture on the left shows an initial state of pure water on the right side and a solution of water and solute, on the other side, separated by a semi-permeable membrane. This membrane allows water to move freely from side to side, but excludes the solute particles.

If we mixed a glass of each, together, the combined mixture will attempt to increase entropy to become an ordered but more complex solution; state. In this case above, they cannot mix that way. However, since only water can feel and act on the second law, it has to do the work for both. A force is created, that pushes the pure water into the solution and upward against gravity and stops when the force of gravity on the pressure head equals the residual entropic force.

On the right, it shows that if we add a mechanical force, to the pressure head, which add to the gravity force, we can reverse the process and add entropy potential back to the water, essentially reversing the entropic force.

If we look at the middle diagram at steady state, even though there is a pressure difference across the membrane, the water is not being force to the right due to the pressure difference. Rather the water at the membrane is at equilibrium gently diffusing in both directions. This all seems rather bizarre, however the difference for the water is connected to switch settings and because the water is in communication on both sides trying to optimize the system to its own needs, the second law and even gravity. Gravity can resist an entropy increase. Gravity sets entropic potential, which then allows for 2nd law potential and change.

In life, the water and oil effect, which separates the water from the organics, often involves membranes. Adjustments in permeability can alter the entropic force; more of less inclusion or exclusion of total solute composed of many different things.

An interesting extreme occurrence occurs during cell cycles, where the nuclear membrane disappears. That nuclear membrane for the entropic force, near the DNA is removed. Now all the inside and outside materials can play a role to increase entropy.

Neurons in conjunction with neurotransmitters, can fine tune tweak the semipermeability. This can inhibit or make firing easier. This will also impact the entropic forces and osmotic pressures for dendrite and axon growth. This impacts the height of the Sisyphus Hill.
 

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
For the next installment, I would like to discuss the electron in ways relevant to hydrogen bonding and consciousness.

The electron is unique in that it is an elementary particle, meaning it cannot be broken down further. Of all the elementary particles, it is the most stable, with an extremely long shelf life; time potential. Electrons are always in motion and never rest; velocity. While a charge in motion, like an electron, creates a magnetic field.

In electron orbitals, the motion of the electrons are governed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which states that there is a limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties, such as position and momentum, can be simultaneously known. The more precise we know one, the less precise we know the other.

This experimental observation can be explained if space-time was not fully connected but rather separated where space and time can each act, independently. If the two were always connected, one should be able to predict one from the other. But since we cannot, and its get worse the closer we look, space and time are acting like space-time is broken, into two semi-independent things. Position is about space, while momentum; mv=md/t, has the units of space but also needs time to be expressed. Time is not connected in a simple linear way, like the concept of space-time, when we reach the quantum level. A more detailed discussion of separated space and time can be found in the link below. This concept also connects to consciousness.

Deism?

The most interesting property of the electron, is the electron has negative charge as well as mass, yet because it is an elementary particle, the mass and charge cannot be physically separated, as two distinct things, even though we can measure two distinct things. This is almost the opposite of the Uncertainty Principle, in the sense of two things that should not be, but are. This paradox can be resolved if the electron's mass and negative charge were part of a single unified phase. In the case of mass and negative charge, they share the same unified foundation within the electron and are interchangeable to some degree like hydrogen bonding being polar or covalent.

One more similar anomaly is connected to a magnetic field addition that oxygen creates using electrons. In a magnet we have two poles, north and south. However, we have never been able to isolate a monopole. This is similar to an electron, being a unified particle with two states, but these cannot be separated. Within the electron, we have three useful paradoxes. We have the 3-D magnetic addition of oxygen's electrons for the magnetic paradox and the uncertainty in space and time. While the unification of the electron change and mass; via an elementary particle, connects to gravity, the entropic force, osmosis, pressure, and EM force.
 

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
The Hydrogen Proton

Unlike the electron, the hydrogen proton, is not an elementary particle. The proton is a composite particle composed of three quarks. Interestingly, this composite is very stable, while its individual elementary particle building blocks, have very limited life expectancies outside the composite. This is sort of counter intuitive in the sense, how can the structure outlast its building blocks? Or as the engineer would ask, how can build a structure that allow the building blocks to last longer than they would, without the structure?

Conceptually, one practical example and solution is; If I had eight ice cubes and I was to make one large composite cube, this will reduce surface area for heat transfer, allowing the composited eight pieces, to outlast the individual eight cubes, if they were all spread out.

Positron emission, beta plus decay, or β+ decay is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).

In beta decay, a proton in a radioactive nucleus, releases a positron, which is an elementary particle that is considered, antimatter, relative to the electron. It appears matter and anti-matter can get along, but only if the antimatter positron, stays inside the proton composite. The positron is like the electron, but has positive charge and a slight mass. Being elementary it is a single phase, but appears as two measurable things. Due the mass of the proton, the positron phase may be slightly shifted to the mass side.

One of the paradox and mysteries of cosmology is that if we assume the early universe appeared from energy becoming matter and anti-matter, the matter and antimatter would recombine and annihilate to reform energy, forever stuck in a loop of creation and disintegration. The 2nd law states that the entropy of the universe has to increase, and therefore does not allow such a permanent steady state. Something much more complex needed to form, as a platform onto which even more complexity could then build.

The hydrogen proton appears to have been the solution to the matter and antimatter symmetry paradox. It allows a way for the positron; antimatter, to last longer, by being shielded within the proton composite. The symmetry was repurposed. This shielded antimatter fools the matter; electrons to attract for the death dance, and although the positron is a sitting duck, the election it cannot easily close the deal, unless atom nuclei get larger and unstable; weaker composites that can release the antimatter. Electrons waits in orbitals for the chance. Matter and antimatter is a much stronger attraction than just EM, due to the final prize; pure energy,

As far as the nature of the shielding within the proton, since the purpose was to buy the positron time in a matter universe, it can be done with time potential. The composite has more time potential than the pieces; better designed for longevity. In the example, of the eight ice cube, cube, lasting longer than the eight separate ice cubes I decreased the distance (surface area). Limiting the space of the positron via the small proton composite container, also bought it time. If it spreads out, it is toast; distance potential.

The hydrogen proton is the foundational proton composite and typically has one electron. Conceptually, the hydrogen proton is the most stable matter and anti-matter containment composite. We have yet to see a spontaneous hydrogen proton decay. Life, by using this stable state of the hydrogen proton, for hydrogen bonding, appears to need something very light and sturdy.

The proton decay hypothesis was first formulated by Andrei Sakharov in 1967. Despite significant experimental effort, proton decay has never been observed. If it does decay via a positron, the proton's half-life is constrained to be at least 1.67×1034years.

As atomic fusion makes higher atoms like carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, the mass burn; E=MC2, appears to weaken the proton containment, slightly, allowing organized containment of electrons into higher orbits. In the case of oxygen, there is even extra electron competition with two extra electrons attempting to court the contained anti-matter that is more exposed. This is just another way of saying the same things as classic thinking, while making conceptual use of the stronger matter and antimatter affinity; unified charge-mass.
 
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wellwisher

Well-Known Member
Hydrogen Proton and space-time and separated space and time.

The previous discussion of the hydrogen proton was more like a preliminary development effort, that I did on the fly, thinking out loud. I had not given the proton that much thought, beyond the chemical nature of life, water and hydrogen bonding. However, it was time to approach protons in a context that could connect the hydrogen proton to physics and space-time and separated space and time.

The main conclusion that seemed to come out of that brain storm session, was there is a positron, which is anti-matter, trapped, wrapped, and shielded within the proton. This trap separates matter; electron and antimatter; positron, to help take advantage of their powerful affinity, while buying them both time; extra long life, before their powerful affinity is able to terminates them both; annihilation to pure energy. Since both electrons and positrons are elementary particles, with mass and charge, the unified nature of their mass/charge, is what gives them that extra affinity beyond just the EM force.

The proton is composed of three quarks; two ups and one down, and gluons. The quarks contain the charge, while the gluon particles maintain the containment. The gluons are a type of binding energy, similar to photons, and contain 99% of the mass of the proton, as defined by E=MC2.

According to Einstein, mass is responsible for maintaining space-time, as defined by General and Special Relativity. The gluons that contain the positron is the bulk of the mass of the proton and neutron. If we go back to three legged race of time and space within space-time and separated space and separated time, the main difference is mass/binding energy/gluons. Separated space and time have no gluons or mass. Without gluons/mass space-time loses its mass base glue, that defines gravity and the relativity of space-time. Without the glue of the gluons, it would also release the positrons, which would annihilate. Luckily, gluon containment of the positron involves mass and the force of gravity needed to stabilize space-time. I guess that makes the gluons the tether of the three legged race of space-time.

In terms of atomic synthesis, fusion burns mass, up to the element iron, essentially losing gluon/mass to energy, making the positron containment weaker or less shielded. The electrons of higher atoms sense this and stack up in neat orbital arrangements courting the positrons that are stored behind the thinner veil.

The analogy that came to mind is old fashion ritual where all the suiters come to a maiden's home to seek her hand in marriage. She is shielded by her parents, who size up the suiters. Everyone is on their best behavior; assigned seat. While the prize; marriage to the love of your life, is worth the temporary loss of choice and freedom; atomic orbital compliance.

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits a beta particle (fast energetic electron or positron), transforming into an isobar of that nuclide. For example, beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron accompanied by an antineutrino; or, conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron with a neutrino in so-called positron emission. Neither the beta particle nor its associated (anti-)neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process.

The positron is not inside the proton in the sense of packing toys in a box. It is being contained in a way that makes it impossible to annihilate unless the gatekeeper; W+ bosom, unlocks the door.

440px-Electron_Capture_Decay.svg.png

Above is the leading-order Feynman diagram for β+decay of a proton into a neutron, positron, and electron neutrino via an intermediate
W+boson.

The W+boson is a very short lived particle with a half life of 3x10-25 seconds. It has the mass of about 80 times that of a proton. They are carrier particles that mediate the weak nuclear force. At the most fundamental level, the weak force, via the W+ is used to change the flavour of a single quark: up (u) becomes down (d), which is immediately followed by the decay of the W+ into a positron and electron neutrino.

Isolated neutrons will decay to a proton and electron, but isolated protons do not decay to neutrons and positrons. The mass will increase when we go from a proton to a neutron. Free protons don't have the energy needed. The protons needs the extra group mass/energy within a larger atomic nucleus to summon the W+boson gatekeeper, so it can flip a single quark switch, on a single proton, and releases a piece of anti-matter.

The puzzling part is the mass of the W+bosom, that needs to appear to release the positron, is much heavier than many atoms that release positrons.

Light positron-emitting radionuclide, are carbon-11 (t½ = 20.4 min), nitrogen-13 (t½ = 9.96 min), oxygen-15 (t½ = 2.03 min), fluorine-18 (t½ = 109.7 min).

This is where the concept of separated space and separated time appear as part of the equation. If the proton inside a nucleus was not constrained by the tethers of space-time, and time and space could each act separately, the energy math changes. The analogy is mass cannot go the speed of light, since this will take infinite energy. But if we phase change the mass to photons, that is a piece of cake.

In the field of separated space and time, by having fewer constraints; untethered to each other, together they can define much higher entropy, with a sudden loss of entropy being exothermic; brief virtual presence of W+.
 

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
The Second Law and Entropy
The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of the universe has to increase. The implication is that the free energy of the material universe decreases with time. This is expressed by the Gibb's Free Energy Equation G=H-TS, were G is the total free energy, H is enthalpy or internal energy, T is temperature in degrees K, and S is entropy. The -TS part of the equation, shows the free energy decreases with every second law increase in S, due to the minus sign, at any temperature above absolute zero.

There appears to be a connection between entropy and time. Unlike energy which cycles like a wave and is conserved to never net change, both entropy and time increase to the future, with time a dynamic variable measured between changes of state; entropy is a state variable. A digital clock changes between numbers with an interval between these visual states called one second. Increasing entropy and time are connected since entropy cannot increase without time, and time cannot be measured unless there are changes between states. We cannot measure time in a still snapshot since there is only one state at a point in stopped time. However, in motion blur we can sense movement between states or time, through a motion blur in space; between states quantum states.

Time naturally flows to the future, while entropy increases, as we move to the future. Entropy and time do not cycle like a wave. Instead it may be more like a helix; 3-D with a z-axis connected to entropy and time. It can repeat, but in the context of a new time; state. New states called stars appear each day, but the next one forward in time. The state called a star becomes a stable platform for further changes in time and increases in entropy.

That being said, the extreme temperature of the original universe, even with only slight increases in entropy/complexity would be multiplied by the extreme T of the early universe, leading to a large free energy loss from the original space-time universe; rapid cooling. Luckily entropy moves in steps between stable states; in time. One early entropic platform or state was matter and anti-matter. The state of matter and antimatter was a bottleneck for time and entropy, since nothing was changing; equilibrium with energy.

Beta decay can come from protons and neutrons, with neutron decay more spontaneous, releasing an electron to form a proton. The proton does not easily decay outside an atomic nucleus This suggests that the original containment state of matter and anti-matter contained both anti-particles via a single neutron type state; gluons/mass. It was a double layer containment. The neutrons would decay to form electrons, and the hydrogen atoms, which maintained their positron containment.

To make the energy math add properly, a positron and electron containment would result in a loss of entropy, with the release of entropic energy into gluon containment, with the formation of gluon mass energy and gravity. The proton and electron are a throwback in time. It was a more useful entropic bottleneck state, from which a secondary layer of entropy increase; from gravity; fusion and atomic synthesis. Gravity lowers entropy to become a bottleneck, but creates platforms for entropic increase and new states.

Since the entropy of the universe has to increase, and an increase in entropy lowers free energy, this implies the material universe is bleeding free energy into increasing entropy. Energy conservation says that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change form. Conceptually, these two laws combined suggest that the lost free energy of the universe, due to the second law, is conserved, but in a way that is net off limits to the material universe. We can lower entropy, in pockets, such as turn liquid water into ice, but that takes more energy than we get back, since that causes entropy to increase via inefficacy in our refrigeration tools.

Time travel is not possible since our tools would created an increase in entropy thereby changing the past to a state of higher entropy thereby altering the past from the future. Time travel forward in time does the same thing, but since we do not know the future, a change might appear fine. We would not know the difference.

Theoretically, the universe has a pool of conserved energy, caused by the second law, that is no longer directly available to our material or space-time universe, in a net way, or else that would void the second law. We can get back, bits and pieces, but this costs net energy. Our space-time universe is connected to its mass/energy, which is connected to the gluons, which contain the positrons and electrons in neutrons, which contain free energy suspended or frozen in time.

Entropy S is not energy, rather TS is energy. Therefore S or entropy, by itself, is not energy, so what is being conserved? The second law only speaks of entropy but not free energy. Since entropy is not energy it is neither photons or gluons/mass. It is more like information of previous states, as could be defined by separated space and separated time with the tether of gluons gone.

In the case of the W+ boson gatekeeper, W+ appears to also be the gatekeeper to the pool of lost informational energy. There is a local loss of entropy within the pool, that can release free energy for brief instants to release energy as the positron. This is quickly recycled. This appears connected to time potential which brings the retro positron to the present.
 

wellwisher

Well-Known Member
The Universe before the Singularity

We live in a space-time universe where space and time are tethered like two people in a three legged race. The tethers of mass, gravity, relativity and space-time places limits which we call relative reference and the laws of Physics. One conceptual problem connected to beginning the universe at a singularity before the Big Bang, is we do not know about potential extra variables, that led to the singularity, or whether these extra variables are still in effect. Nor do we fully know how to characterize the lost energy pool connected to entropy and the second law.

As a way to address the interval before the singularly, I developed the theory of that there is not just our connected space-time Big Bang Universe, but also another theoretical state composed of disconnected space and disconnected time. This state can bring us back to before energy and the primordial atom, since energy is connected to tethered space and time; wavelength/time. Disconnected space and disconnected time would be more like wavelength without frequency and frequency without wavelength.

For example, I eat three meals a day; frequency of 3. This has not connected wavelength as is energy. I can change it to two meals a day and get the same caloric value in terms of food energy. Or I can measure my foot without having to do this everyday or just a quickly each time I do it; cycle like energy. These types of things are more like connected to consciousness than to matter and space-time. Fictional novels adds extra information in time or space, that is enjoyed by human consciousness, but is not exactly tethered to physical reality. Information processing by consciousness appears to make use of this other state; escape from tethered reality.

By removing the tethers of space-time, the current laws of physics would not necessarily apply, since there should be way more options and wild cards. If I could move in space, apart from time, I could become omnipresent since time is not tethered to space, like in space-time. Interestingly, if I could travel at the speed of light, the universe would appear to contract to a point, allowing me to be everywhere in zero time by virture of that point. This other state appears to be connected to the speed of light, but since mass cannot go that fast, it not exactly about mass and space-time or energy as we know it, since energy is tethered to the needs of space-time.

Imagination, such as goes into science fiction, often becomes reality in space-time, in the future, via applied science, which can make new things not in nature, or which naturally forms only by natural laws. This creative liberty loosens the informational tethers of space-time; in the imagination, and then tightens them back, up to become tangible in reality. This also suggests that we live in space-time, but we are also submerged where and space and time are not tethered. We can go outside the box and can expand the box, back; new entropic state. We can see this interaction beyond the mind, in the quantum world; quantum coupling, where they move together in time, independent of distance.

If we could move in time apart from distance and move in distance apart from time, the complexity of states could increase relative to what is possible in space-time. In the limit we could be a state of infinite complexity. This would make that the untethered state the drive behind the 2nd law within our space-time universe. The space-time universe formed, and is now evolving, by heading back to its source, driven by the reunion of the second law. Since before space and time connected, we do have energy, before the primordial atom could appear, the universe was void of physical variables that can exist in space-time, except maybe transient states, when independent space and time meet for a brief kiss; flash that disappears after the kiss. This state is a good time to data process, form a blueprint and quickly simulation, without needing material resources just yet.

Conceptually to form the primordial atom and jump start the Big Bang Universe, all in one step, all we would need is an aspect of independent space and time to have a lingering embrace, so the two become tethered as one. Since going from independent space and time, to tethered space-time, reduces complexity, this would lower the informational entropy and release free energy, into the tether, from the void; Big Bang.

With our space-time universe, still submerged in independent space and time; quantum level, it should be heading back to the source. Life and Consciousness play a role in this by extrapolating the natural laws of space-time to increase the complexity in the direction of the goal. Life offers a rich variety of increasingly complex organization. Even evolution has a vector. Random is when the two states interact and you only assume the laws of space-time without the other state. Even the uncertainty principle can be explained with space and time not exactly connected; tethered tightly, thereby making them to have coupled uncertainty, in space-time.
 
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